A recent study (BP Raphael et al. JPGN 2019; 70: 59-63) describes 309 central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in 90 children were dependent on parenteral nutrition (median age 3.8 years).
- 60% of isolated organisms were gram-positive, 34% were gram-negative, and 6% fungi.
- For gram-positive organisms, 51% were sensitive to methicillin
- For gram-negative organisms, 71% were sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam, 97% to cefepime, and 99% to meropenem
Based on these findings, the authors advocate the following:
- “Vancomycin and cefepime provide improve coverage over vancomcyin piperacillin-tazobactam for” CLABSI
- Empiric use of vancomycin and meropenem “may be justified” in septic shock “where maximal probability of cure outweighs risks of long-term drug resistance”
- If there is an increased fungemia risk, such as prior fungal infections, shock, or immunodeficiency, the authors recommend adding fluconazole
Another advantage of cefepime over piperacillin-tazobactam is a reduced risk of acute kidney injury which has been associated with the latter.
My take: Individual institutions may have variable organism sensitivity. In the absence of institutional data, this recommendations are a good starting point.
Related blog post: #NASPGHAN19 Intestinal Failure Session Part 1
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