Hepatitis C virus (HCV) now kills more people in the United States than HIV (Ann Intern Med 2012; 156: 271-78). Data from the CDC followed the mortality burden of Hepatitis B (HBV), HCV, and HIV from 1999 to 2007. The data were derived from death certificates & a limitation was that these are often completed by individuals other than the primary physician. Sometimes the exact cause is difficult to discern. However, this is more likely to result in underreports of deaths from viral hepatitis compared with those from HIV.
In total, 21.8 million death certificates were analyzed.
- HBV death rate stayed relatively constant –in 2007: 1815 deaths*
- HCV death rate increased steadily –in 2007: 15106 deaths*
- HIV death rate improved –in 2007: 12734 deaths*
*When infection was cause or underlying contributor of death
One in 33 baby boomers are infected with HCV; most do not know they are infected. Three-fourths of the deaths for HCV are in this age group as well. In addition, it is expected that mortality from HCV will grow over the next 10-15 years without a major intervention. http://www.ajc.com/health/hepatitis-c-deaths-up-1356460.html
Given the increasing HCV disease burden, this strengthens the rationale for more aggressive case finding and the use of more effective & more expensive therapies (see previous blog: The cost of progress in treating Hepatitis C. Among patients with HCV with advanced disease/cirrhosis, monitoring for HCC is important (Looking for trouble).
- -Hepatology 2011; 54: 1547. Excess mortality (6x gen population) in those who achieve SVR
- -Gastroenterology 2010; 138: 513. Predicts peak cirrhosis due to HCV in year 2020; peak HCV prevalence was year 2000.
- -Clin Gastro Hep 2010; 8: 924. Epidemiology 2010.
- -Hepatology 2010; 52: 1543. Visceral adiposity is associated with increased histological findings and higher viral loads.
- -Gastroenterology 2010; 138: 136. Predicting clinical outcomes: plt<99, Alb <3.5, AST/ALT ratio >1.2, & TB>2 all assoc with 40-50% risk of developing ‘clinical outcome’ in next 3.5yrs. Outcomes: ascites, variceal hemorrhage, decompensation according to CTP (66%), peritonitis, death (2%), encephalopathy
- -Hepatology 2009; 49: 729. 5-yr f/u after successful HCV RX, n=150. 2 developed HCC.
- -Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 138, 39(ed). HCC occurring c HCV ~1%/yr in HALT-C study. prolonged Rx -not helpful. n=1005
- -Hepatology 2008; 47: 1128. Increasing mortality of HCV between 1995-2004. Due to aging of infected individuals.
- -Hepatology 2008; 47: 1371. Genotype 4 review.
- -Hepatology 2008; 47: 836. 2/121 bx of children had cirrhosis.
- -J Pediatr 2007; 150: 168. n=60. Looked at two populations: look back after transfusion and referrals. mean age at infection 7 months, mean time with infection 13yrs. 12% developed significant fibrosis.
- -Hepatology 2007; 45: 1076. Large study: Lancet 2006; 368: 938. 39,109 c HBV, 75,834 c HCV, 2,604 c both. death rate: 3.2%, 5.3%, 7.1% respecively. Increased rate of dying c HCV due to drug use rather than liver dz.
- -Clin Gastro & Hep 2006; 4: 1190-1191, 1271-78, 1278-1282. slow progression of HCV in 184 untreated women infected in 1977 (mean 27 years) — 2.1% developed cirrhosis. genotype 1B ALT values correlated with change in histology.
- -JPGN 2006; 43: 209. Review of 91 cases; 7 c cirrhosis at presentation (mean 11.7yrs)
- -Clin Gastro & Hep 2005; 3: 910. cirrhosis in 71% after 60 years in Asian patients; 25% in Caucasian pts 61-80 who presumably had disease for shorter interval.
- -Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 1695. obesity/insulin resistance worsens fibrosis in HCV
- -Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 483-491. IFN Rx improved survival; n=2889. retrospective study.
- -JPGN 2001;33: 22A. spontaneous clearance in 30% during short f/u; n=145.
- -Hepatology 2000; 32: 91-96. Low likelihood of progression in cohort followed for 20yrs.