IBD Shorts -October 2019

Briefly noted:

D Piovani et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 157: 647-59.  This study examined environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease after extensive literature review and assessment of meta-analysis.

9 factors that were associated with increased risk of IBD:

  • smoking (CD)
  • urban living (CD & IBD)
  • appendectomy (CD)
  • tonsillectomy (CD)
  • antibiotic exposure (IBD)
  • oral contraceptive use (IBD)
  • consumption of soft drinks (UC)
  • vitamin D deficiency (IBD)
  • Heliobacter species (non-Helicobacter pylori-like) (IBD)

7 factors that associated with reduced risk of IBD:

  • physical activity (CD)
  • breatfeeding (IBD)
  • bed sharing (CD)
  • tea consumption (UC)
  • high folate levels (IBD)
  • high vitamin D levels (CD)
  • H pylori infection (CD, UC, and IBD)

EL Barnes et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 1474-80. In this review which identified 12 studies and 4843 with an IPAA ( ileal pouch-anal anastomosis) for ulcerative colitis, 10.3% were ultimately diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Link to full text and video explanation: The Incidence and Definition of Crohn’s Disease of the Pouch: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

EV Loftus et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 1522-31. In this study with 2057 adalimumab-naive patients, “the proportion of patients in HBI remission increased from 29% (573 of 1969; baseline) to 68% (900 of 1331; year 1) and 75% (625 of 831; year 6). Patients stratified by baseline immunomodulator use had similar HBI remission rates.”  Full text: Adalimumab Effectiveness Up to Six Years in Adalimumab-naïve Patients with Crohn’s Disease: Results of the PYRAMID Registry

The following study was summarized in previous blog: Oral Antibiotics For Refractory Inflammatory Bowel Disease  Full text link: Efficacy of Combination Antibiotic Therapy for Refractory Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Washington Park, Portland, OR

30 -Year Outcomes with Biliary Atresia

M Fanna et al. JPGN 2019; 69: 416-24. In this retrospective 30-year study (1986-2015) from France, patients were examined in 4 time cohorts: 1986-96, 1997-2002, 2003-9, and 2010-5.

  • Age at Kasai operation remained stable throughout the study period -median 59 days.
  • Early Kasai was associated with a reduced need for liver transplantation. 25-year survival with native liver was 38%, 27%, 22%, and 19% for patients operated in first, second, third months or later respectively.
  • Clearance of jaundice (total bilirubin ≤20 micromol/L) after Kasai did not change appreciably in the time cohorts and was 38.8%.
  • 753 (of 1428 in cohort) patients underwent liver transplantation.
  • Overall survival of entire cohort was 87% (including all levels of followup).
  • Survival after LT was 79% at 28 years.
  • Five-year patient survival after LT was 76%, 91%, 88%, and 92% in the cohorts, indicating better survival more recently.
  • 22% of patients reached age 30 years without transplantation.

The authors note that better outcomes were noted in a long-term study from Japan where there are lower rates of LT needed for biliary atresia. IN Japan 20-year survival with native liver and overall patient survival was 48% and 89%, compared to 26% and 76% in France.

My take: This study indicates that the majority of patients with BA will require liver transplantation and that earlier Kasai operation is associated with a better chance of survival with native liver.  It is likely that data in the U.S. would be more similar to France than Japan based on prior publications.

Related blog posts:

Ecola State Park, OR

Liver Briefs -October 2019

Briefly noted:

M Mouzaki et al. JPGN 2019; 69: 339-43. In a cohort of 228 patients with 17 (8%) who were receiving psychotropic medications, the use of psychotropic medications was associated with increased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity.  These patients were more likely to be receiving metformin (53% vs 18%) and antihypertensive medications (29% vs 8%).

S Honigbaum et al. JPGN 2019; 69: 344-50. Among 20 infants with biliary atresia, tissue had abundantly expressed lysly oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) compared to controls.  LOXL2 is an extracellular matrix enzyme that catalyzed cross-linking of collagen and elastin; LOXL2 likely contributes to fibrosis.

Fewer Surgeries with Crohn’s Disease

Briefly noted: NE Burr et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 2042-49.

In a retrospective cohort (1994-2013) using a primary care database from England, the authors identified decreasing risk of surgeries with Crohn’s diseae (CD).

  • From 1994-2003, the risk of first surgery dropped from 44% to 21%.
  • The risk of a second resection dropped as well, from 40% in 1994 to 17% in 2003 (with 10-year followup)

The reasons for this reduction are not certain but could include better clinical care or reduction in other risk factors (like smoking).

Atlanta Botanical Garden

NASPGHAN/ESPGHAN Position Paper: Nutrition Support for Children with Chronic Liver Disease

M Mouzaki et al. JPGN 2019; 69: 498-511. Full text link: Nutrition Support of Children with Chronic Liver Diseases: A Joint Position Paper of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition 

Figure 2 (above) outlines an approach to assuring adequate intake of nutrients

Table 2 (above) provides an approach to laboratory monitoring. The authors recommend measuring every 3-6 months for most of the vitamins and micronutrients listed in this table

Table 3 (above) provides recommendations for specific elements of nutritional support.

Figure 1 (above) describes pathophysiology of malnutrition.

My take: This position paper provides useful advice for approaching nutritional support in children with chronic liver disease. Defining the specific patients in which these guidelines may be applicable requires individual assessment.  Thus, the authors note that the guidelines “should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment.”

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition