How Effective Are PPIs for Eosinophilic Esophagitis?

Emilio J. Laserna‐Mendieta et al. AP&T 2020; https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.15957.  Full article link: Efficacy of proton pump inhibitor therapy for eosinophilic oesophagitis in 630 patients: results from the EoE connect registry

“This cross‐sectional study collected data on PPI efficacy from the multicentre EoE CONNECT database.” Overall, 630 patients (76 children) received PPI as initial therapy (n = 600) or after failure to respond to other therapies (n = 30)

Key findings:

  • PPI therapy achieved eosinophil density below 15 eosinophils per high‐power field in 48.8% and a decreased symptom score ≥50% from baseline in 71.0% of patients.
  • More EoE patients with an inflammatory rather than stricturing phenotype accomplished clinico‐histological remission after PPI therapy (OR 3.7; 95% CI, 1.4‐9.5)
  • PPI treatment is more effective in achieving clinico‐histological remission of the disease when used in higher instead of standard or lower doses (50.8% vs 35.8%), and when the duration of therapy is prolonged from 8 to 12 weeks (50.4% vs. 65.2%)

My take: This study confirms previous studies which have generally found that PPIs are effective in 40-50% of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.  Higher doses of PPIs are needed to achieve the highest response rates.

“Bar chart for histological (A) and symptomatic (B) responses for proton pump inhibitor (PPI) mono‐therapy to induce and maintain remission in patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis. For induction of remission, patients were classified according to the PPI dosage prescribed: high dose was double dosage or higher, and low dose was standard dosage or lower. For maintenance therapy, only patients with dosage reduction from that used for induction were included. eos/hpf: eosinophils per high power field”

Related blog posts:

NOT Screening At-Risk Infants for Hepatitis C

A recent study (S Lopata et al. Pediatrics 2020; 145: e20192482. Link to Abstract/Video: Hepatitis C Testing Among Perinatally Exposed Infants) was well-summarized in a recent practical gastroenterology issue: Full link: Hepatitis C Screening of Infants

An excerpt:

  • During the study period, 384,837 mother-infant dyads were enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program, and 4072 of these mothers had HCV during pregnancy…
  • The prevalence of infants with exposure to HCV increased significantly throughout the study with 5.1 infants exposed to HCV per 1000 live births in 2005 and 22.7 infants exposed to HCV per 1000 live births in 2015 with 92.9% of the mothers of these children being white.
  • Only 946 infants (23%) exposed to HCV had HCV testing in the first 2 years of life, and 354 of these infants (41%) had testing per recommended national guidelines…
  • Infants who were exposed to HCV and who were African American or who lived in rural areas next to metropolitan areas were significantly less likely to have HCV testing.

My take: As with adults, this study shows that selective HCV testing is a messy proposition.  This study shows that more than 75% of at risk infants are not being tested for HCV.  Now that curative treatment is available, more needs to be done to address this public health failure.

Online Aspen Webinar (Part 9) -Liver Disease After Fontan, Acute on Chronic Liver Disease and Immunosuppression Withdrawal Strategies

Below I’ve included a few more slides form recent Aspen Webinars

Fontan Associated Liver Disease  Greg Tiao

Related blog posts:

Acute on Chronic Liver Failure  Estella Alonso

Immunosuppression strategies ..and is withdrawal possible  Kathleen Campbell

Online Aspen Webinar -COVID-19, Autoimmune Hepatitis (Part 8)

For those who want to view the actual lectures, you can sign up and view the recordings:  Aspen Webinar Lecture Series


Below I’ve included a few slides and some notes; my notes may have errors of omission or transcription.

COVID-19 and the Liver — Fred Suchy

Key Points:

  • The extent and severity of liver disease related to COVID-19  is still being determined.  Many individuals have mild liver test abnormalities (5-60%)
  • Avoid imaging unless it will change your management (eg. thrombus)
  • In those with worsening/significant liver abnormalities, look for other etiologies of elevated liver tests (eg. other viral hepatitis, drugs, myositis, coinfection, clots, multi-system inflammatory disorder)
  • Currently, no change in immunosuppression is recommended in the post-transplant population WITHOUT COVID-19. In those with severe COVID-19 infection, reduction in immunosuppression is recommended

 

How I Manage Patients with Autoimmune Hepatitis -Diagnosis and Treatment   Amy Taylor.

Key points:

 

 

 

 

IBD Update -August 2020

S Jansson et al JPGN 2020; 71: 40-5. This retrospective study (1998-2008) showed that pediatric patients with extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) had more severe IBD course than patients with IBD without an EIM.  EIM often had a temporal relationship with a relapse of IBD as well. Of 333 patients, 14 had an EIM at diagnosis and 47 had an EIM develop during followup.

PA Olivera, JS Lasa et al. Gastroenterol 2020; 158: 1554-73. This systematic review and meta-analysis ultimately included 82 studies with 66,159 patients (including those with IBD and other immune-mediated diseases) exposed to a JAK inhibitor; two-thirds of studies were randomized controlled trials.  Key findings:

  • Incidence rates of serious infections, herpes zoster infection, malignancy, and major cardiovascular events were 2.81, 2.67, 0.89, and 0.48 per 100 person year respectively. After meta-analysis, the authors conclude that there is an increased risk of herpes zoster (RR 1.57), but all other adverse events were not increased among patients treated with JAK inhibitors
  • Mortality was not increased in those receiving JAK inhibitors compared to placebo

Loebenstein, JD Schulberg. Gastroenterol 2020; 158: 2069-71.  This case report describes a successful alternative anti-TNF rechallenge after infliximab induced Lupus in Crohn’s disease.  The authors note that in a previous study, 14 of 20 IBD patents with drug-induced lupus secondary to an anti-TNF agent were rechallenged with an alternative anti-TNF agent and 13/14 tolerated rechallenge without recurrent lupus (Inflamm Bowel Dise 2013; 19: 2778-86).

These images show active disease prior to intervention. The article provides f/u images showing endoscopic remission after re-starting a different anti-TNF agent.

Landmark Study on Universal Screening for Biliary Atresia -It Works!

S Harpavat et al. JAMA 2020; 323: 1141-50. Link:  Diagnostic Yield of Newborn Screening for Biliary Atresia Using Direct or Conjugated Bilirubin Measurements

This article provides details on how to improve the outcomes of children with biliary atresia by detecting cases at an earlier age.  The authors provide details on their 2-stage approach at near-universal screening of 124,385 infants in South Texas/Texas Medical Center from 2015-2018 and compare their results to a prior cohort.

Methods: The authors sought to have all infants have a fractionated bilirubin within the first 60 hours of life.  This information can easily be obtained due to preexisting policy of testing total bilirubin in this time-frame.  Those with any abnormal direct bilirubin or conjugated bilirubin had a 2nd stage screening at 2 weeks of life.  At stage 2, any infant with a direct bilirubin >1 mg/dL or higher than 1st stage were considered abnormal.  The stage 2 screening aligned with AAP-recommended 2 week check up. During the screening time-frame (2015-2018), 7 patients were identified with BA (one treated at outside institution), 7 more from nonstudy hospitals who had replicated protocol, and 6 referred due to clinical symptoms.

Key findings:

  • 7 infants with biliary atresia were detected with 100% sensitivity and 100% NPV. The PPV was 5.9% and specificity was 99.9%.  Due to the small number of infants identified, the confidence limits for sensitivity was 56%-100%.
  • During the first stage, 1354 infants (1.1%) had abnormal values. At stage 2, 119 had abnormal values (0.1% of initial cohort and 8.9% of those with 1st stage abnormalities).
  • Range of direct/conjugated bilirubins in those with eventual biliary atresia: Stage 1 —0.4-2.3,and Stage 2 —1.6-3.5
  • In the 2015-2018 time-frame, age at time of Kasai was lowered from 56 days to 36 days, P=.004.
    • The actual time between presentation to specialist to time of Kasai was unchanged ~12 days.
    • In the 2015-18 time-frame, 11 of 19 (58%) had Kasai at less than 30 days (optimal timing) compared to 3 of 24 in historical cohort.
  • Many (n=53) other cholestatic conditions were identified in the stage 2 cohort.  52.7% of abnormal stage 2 tests had no diagnosis determined.
    • Nine had cholestatic diseases: Alagille (n=4), A1AT (n=3), ABCB11 (n=1), Choledochal cyst (n=1).
    • Twelve were heterozygous for a liver disease.
    • Seventeen had conditions associated with neonatal cholestasis: Trisomy 21 (n=5), Trisomy 18 (n=3), portosystemic shunt (n=2), maternal lupus, omphalocele, and panhypopituitarism.
    • Eight had infections including CMV (n=3), and syphilis (n=3). Seven had excessive red blood cell turnover.
  • Many of those with abnormal stage 2 evaluations required minimal workup.  Additional fractionated bilirubin alone were needed for 28 (25%).
  • Premature infants were more likely to have abnormal screening.
  • Transplant-free survival at 1 year was greater in cohort during screening period: 94.7% vs. 70.8% with historical cohort (this did not reach statistical significance)

Discussion:

  • This 2-stage approach is much more promising than stool color cards.  These cards have shown some modest success in countries like Japan and Taiwan which have a national call center and standard 1-month checkups; however, even in these countries, age at time of Kasai were 60 days and 46 days respectively.
  • “The challenge specialists [and pediatricians] face was highlighted by an infant who had a true positive screening result in the study, but underwent the Kasai portoenterostomy at 75 days.”
  • The cost-effectiveness of this approach is unclear.

My take: The best chance for transplant-free survival in biliary atresia involves establishing an early diagnosis.  This study shows one way to accomplish this goal -nothing else has worked despite more than 30 years of trying.

Related blog posts:

 

Reopening Primary Schools -What’s At Stake

R Levinson et al. NEJM 2020; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMms2024920. Full Link: Reopening Primary Schools during the Pandemic

An excerpt:

Children miss out on essential academic and social–emotional learning, formative relationships with peers and adults, opportunities for play, and other developmental necessities when they are kept at home. Children living in poverty, children of color, English language learners, children with diagnosed disabilities, and young children face especially severe losses.

School-provided social welfare services support the health of U.S. communities made  vulnerable by systemic racism, inadequate insurance, family instability, environmental toxicity, and poorly paid jobs.1 More than 50% of all U.S. school-age children rely on their schools for free or reduced-price daily meals. Despite efforts by school districts to maintain these services even when school was conducted remotely, a majority of children have been unable to access the full nutritional benefits to which they’re entitled.5 Schools also provide physical, mental health, and therapeutic services to millions of students per year. Many of these services have proved inaccessible to children — particularly low-income children of color and children with noncitizen family members — when schools are physically closed.1 Finally, safe and consistently open schools are essential for many parents and guardians (particularly women) to be able to reenter the workforce — including the health care sector…

Most locations (except Israel) whose schools are open had already achieved low community transmission rates (<1 new case per day per 100,000 people) and have remained focused on maintaining population-level infection control…

The safest way to open schools fully is to reduce or eliminate community transmission while ramping up testing and surveillance…These precautions are especially important insofar as 17.5% of teachers are 55 or older…

The fundamental argument that children, families, educators, and society deserve to have safe and reliable primary schools should not be controversial. If we all agree on that principle, then it is inexcusable to open nonessential services for adults this summer if it forces students to remain at home even part-time this fall.

My take: This commentary makes strong arguments for reopening schools; however, in countries where this is succeeding, community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is low and we are nowhere close to low.

Related blog posts:

Online Aspen Webinar (Part 7) -Liver Organ Allocation

Below I’ve included a few slides and some notes from recent Aspen Webinars; my notes may have errors of omission or transcription.

Key Points:

  • The new allocation policy tries to make liver organ allocation more equitable in terms of disease acuity at time of transplantation and access to allografts
  • The changes, based on some preliminary data, appear to improve the likelihood of children receiving needed organs. Dr. Bondoc specifically cited the work of Dr. John Bucuvalas in pointing out some of the systemic ways that the previous system disadvantaged children.
    • Infants are at the greatest risk on the wait list.  Yet, successful transplantation in children could be beneficial for many decades
    • PELD underestimates mortality risk
    • 25% of pediatric donors have historically gone to adults

 

Related blog posts:

Online Aspen Webinar (Part 6) -NAFLD and NASH

Aspen Online Webinar July  14-16, 2020

Below I’ve included some of my notes and slides.  There may be errors of omission or transcription.

What’s Hot? NAFLD and NASH Stavra Xanthakos

  • Fatty liver disease burden of NAFLD and NASH is increasing.  This increases the rate of cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver transplantation; the latter is being needed at younger ages
  • Explained that “Lean” (normal BMI) NAFLD is common
  • Diabetes is strongest risk factor for severe fatty liver disease (NASH or fibrosis). PNPLA3 is genetic risk factor for NAFLD risk.
  • Discussed treatment, particularly diet  and bariatric surgery.  Stated that some emerging treatments look promising.
  • In those with suspected NAFLD, Dr. Xanthokos recommends liver biopsy, if lifestyle therapy is ineffective, under specific circumstances: prior to bariatric surgery, in some cases to determine severity, and prior to instituting therapy (eg Vitamin E)

              

Related blog posts:

Online Aspen Webinar (Part 5) -Biliary Atresia Diagnosis and Screening

Online Webinar –Annual Aspen Conference  —July 14, 2000

Below I’ve included a few slides and some notes; my notes may have errors of omission or transcription.

Biliary Atresia -Prompt Diagnosis and Screening Ronald Sokol

Key Points:

  • We have NOT improved age of diagnosis in biliary atresia in the past 30 years
  • Uniform screening of fractionated bilirubin has been effective in Texas:  Diagnostic Yield of Newborn Screening for Biliary Atresia Using Direct or Conjugated Bilirubin Measurements S Harpavat et al. JAMA 2020; 323: 1141-50
  • Pale stools are usually NOT due to biliary atresia but should prompt investigation (eg. fractionated bilirubin)
  • MMP-7 may improve diagnostic approach; unclear if MMP-7 performs well in all populations (eg. prematurity)
  • Outcome key factors: age at diagnosis (goal less than 30-45 days) and surgeon/center

 

Related blog posts: