IBD Shorts: Pediatric Colonic CD, UC Colectomy Risk Factors, Ustekimumab for 5 years

TD Berger et al. JPGN 2022; 74: 258-266. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Paediatric Patients With Isolated Colonic Crohn Disease

This study focused on 94 with isolated colonic Crohn’s disease (L2). Key findings: Response to enteral nutrition (78.3%) was comparable to those with L1 disease (82.4%) (n=104). Skp lesions and granulomas, identified in 65% and 36% in those with L2 disease was similar to those with L1 disease.

JS Hyams et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022; 28: 151-160. Open Access: Clinical and Host Biological Factors Predict Colectomy Risk in Children Newly Diagnosed With Ulcerative Colitis

Key findings:

  • 25/428 (6%) children with recently diagnosed UC underwent colectomy at ≤1 year, 33 (9%) at ≤2 years, and 35 (13%) at ≤3 years. 
  • An initial PUCAI ≥ 65 was highly associated with colectomy (P = 0.0001)
  • A  pretreatment rectal gene expression panel showed that patients who had colectomy had significantly higher values for this genetic signature in comparison with those who did not require colectomy

WJ Sandborn et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022; 20: 578-590. Open Access: Five-Year Efficacy and Safety of Ustekinumab Treatment in Crohn’s Disease: The IM-UNITI Trial

Key findings:

  • Using an intent-to-treat analysis of all patients randomized to ustekinumab at maintenance baseline, 34.4% of patients in the every-8-weeks group and 28.7% in the every-12-weeks group were in clinical remission at week 252. In the 8 week group in the long-term extension portion of the study the rate was 54.9%
  • Adverse effect profile (per 100 patient-years): generally were similar in the placebo and combined ustekinumab groups for all adverse events (440.3 vs 327.6), serious adverse events (19.3 vs 17.5), infections (99.8 vs 93.8), and serious infections (3.9 vs 3.4).
White Sands (actually gypsum) at White Sands National Park, NM

“For Hospitalized Patients With ASUC, 5-ASA Adds No Value to Steroids”

From Gastroenterology and Endoscopy News (4/25/22): Open Access: For Hospitalized Patients With ASUC, 5-ASA Adds No Value to Steroids

In the first prospective randomized study, presented at the 2022 Crohn’s & Colitis Congress and published in Inflammatory Bowel Dis (S Ben-Horin et al 2022;28 [suppl 1]:S14 CORTICOSTEROIDS AND 5ASA VERSUS CORTICOSTEROIDS ALONE FOR ACUTE SEVERE ULCERATIVE COLITIS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL), investigators at 10 centers in six countries randomly assigned 149 patients hospitalized for ASUC to receive daily doses of 300 mg of hydrocortisone (or equivalent methylprednisolone) alone or in combination with 4 g of mesalamine.

Key findings:

  • 72.6% of patients receiving combination corticosteroids with 5-ASA responded to treatment at one week compared with 76.3% of responders in the group receiving corticosteroids alone
  • “There were no differences in hospital length of stay between groups (median, 10 vs. nine days for the combination and monotherapy groups, respectively), the proportion of patients whose C-reactive protein level normalized (34.2% vs. 34.3%, respectively), or the proportion requiring colectomy within 90 days (4.9% vs. 4.5%, respectively).”
  • While 5-ASAs did not alter the trajectory of acute colitis, one other finding was a lower rate of biologic use (27% vs 47%, P=.07) at 90 days in those who continued to receive 5-ASA therapy at 90 days.

My take: 5-ASAs do not appear to be helpful during hospitalization for ASUC but may be beneficial as a maintenance therapy in some patients.

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition

Tricky Article Title: IBD and Celiac

M Alkhayyat et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022; 28: 385-392. Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease on Treatment Have Lower Rates of Celiac Disease

When I first saw this title, I mistakenly thought the title indicated that celiac disease (CD) occurred less often in those with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This would have been surprising given previous studies have found the opposite. In fact, this study confirms the bidirectional associated risk between patients with CD and in patients with IBD but with a twist. Most IBD treatments were associated with a lower risk of developing CD than those who were not treated.

Database study: Of the 72,965,940 individuals in the database (1999-2020), 133,400 had celiac disease (CD) (0.18%), 191,570 (0.26%) had ulcerative colitis (UC), and 230,670 (0.32%) had Crohn disease.

Key findings:

  • Patients with IBD were more likely to have a diagnosis of celiac disease (odds ratio [OR], 13.680), with a greater association with Crohn disease (OR 24.473).
  • Treated patients with IBD with UC and with Crohn disease, respectively, had a lower risk association with CD compared to those not undergoing IBD treatment, specifically corticosteroids (OR, 0.407 and 0.585), 5-aminosalicylates (OR, 0.124 and 0.127), immunomodulators (OR, 0.385 and 0.425), and anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs (OR, 0.215 and 0.242)
  • A new diagnosis of CD after 1 year of IBD diagnosis, was 1.59% for Crohn disease and 0.90% for UC compared to 0.16% in patients without IBD (P<0.0001)
  • A new diagnosis of IBD, Crohn disease and UC respectively, in patients with celiac disease was 2.75% and 1.11% compared to 0.29% and 0.25% in the non-celiac population (P<0.0001)
  • A new diagnosis of IBD and celiac disease among patients with microscopic colitis was 10.5% and 2.6% respectively; a new diagnosis of microscopic colitis among patients with celiac disease was 0.01%

My take: This study confirms the bidirectional associated risk between IBD and celiac disease. The risk of developing celiac disease in those with IBD may be lower in those receiving some treatments; however, this assertion is limited by the nature of a database study.

Related blog posts:

Pelicans at Shem Creek, SC (near Charleston)

Is Vedolizumab the Best First Line Biologic in Ulcerative Colitis?

D Lukin et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022; 20: 126-135. Open Access: Comparative Safety and Effectiveness of Vedolizumab to Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonist Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis

This multicenter, retrospective observational cohort study (2014-2017) studied the outcomes of 722 adults (n=454 vedolizumab (VDZ), n=268 TNF agents (165 IFX, 103 ADA). Key findings:

  • VDZ-treated patients were more likely to achieve clinical remission (hazard ratio [HR], 1.651; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.229-2.217), steroid-free clinical remission (HR, 1.828; 95% CI, 1.135-2.944), and steroid-free deep remission (HR, 2.819; 95% CI, 1.496-5.310) than those treated with TNF antagonists
  • Safety: Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk of serious adverse events (HR, 0.899; 95% CI, 0.502-1.612) or serious infections (HR, 1.235; 95% CI, 0.608-2.511) between VDZ-treated and TNF-antagonist−treated patients.
  • In TNF-antagonist−naïve patients, VDZ was less likely to be associated with serious adverse events than TNF antagonists (HR, 0.192; 95% CI, 0.049-0.754). Thus, among UC patients with no prior TNF exposure, there was nearly an 80% reduction in any serious adverse event (this difference could be related, at least in part, to patient selection/disease severity)
  • In TNF-exposed patients, VDZ was associated with a significant increased risk for serious infections (HR, 4.295).

The authors note that the clinical remission results are similar to a previous head-to-head study of VDZ vs ADA in which VDZ had OR 1.568 for achieving clinical remission. It should be noted that the potential conflict of interest list of the 36 authors is extensive.

My take: This article supports VDZ as a first-line option for UC and strengthens the argument that it should be the first biologic for most patients with UC.

Related blog posts:

Siesta Key, FL

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

IBD Shorts: Fecal Calprotectin in UC & Medication Withdrawal, Outcome of Biosimilar Reverse Switches, Vedolizumab after Anti-TNF Therapy

TW Stevens et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021; 19: 2333-2342. Open Access. Diagnostic Accuracy of Fecal Calprotectin Concentration in Evaluating Therapeutic Outcomes of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis

Key finding: A post hoc analysis of data from a phase 4 trial (the MOMENTUM trial) found that, even in patients (n=593 at week 8, n=305 at week 52) with complete endoscopic healing of UC, FC concentration can be used to discriminate patients with ongoing microscopic inflammation from patients with histologic remission.  The optimal FC cut-off concentrations for identification of patients with histologic remission were 75 μg/g at week 8 and 99 μg/g at week 52.

A Cassinotti et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021; 19: 2293-2301. Noninvasive Monitoring After Azathioprine Withdrawal in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Deep Remission

Key finding: In this prospective study, 57 patients in deep remission stopped azathioprine after a median of 7 years. 26 (46%) relapsed within a median of 15 months. Fecal calprotectin (FC) levels were >50 mcg/g in all patients with relapse (FC specificity 100%) but the sensitivity was only 50%. Thus, having a normal FC does not preclude relapse but elevated FC is associated with relapse.

S Mahmmod et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021; 27: 1954-1962. Outcome of Reverse Switching From CT-P13 to Originator Infliximab in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

In this retrospective study, 75 patients, 9.9% of all patients, who had been changed from originator infliximab to a biosimilar had clinical worsening. Key finding: Improvement of reported symptoms was seen in 73.3% of patients after reverse switching back to originator infliximab; alsor 7 out of 9 patients (77.8%) with loss of response regained response

J Kim et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021; 27: 1931-1941. Clinical Outcomes and Response Predictors of Vedolizumab Induction Treatment for Korean Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Who Failed Anti-TNF Therapy: A KASID Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

Key finding: Clinical remission rates with vedolizumab among patients with CD (n=80) and patients with UC (n=78) were 44.1% and 44.0%. Among patients with UC, the endoscopic remission rate was 32.4%

Preclinical Disease Detection of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Recent articles indicate the possibility of preclinical disease detection of inflammatory bowel disease; perhaps this is analagous to the “precrime’ detection in The Minority Report which allowed the police to arrest people before they committed their crime.

D Bergemalm et al. Gastroenterol 2021; 161: 1526-1539. Open Access: Systemic Inflammation in Preclinical Ulcerative Colitis

In this study from Sweden, the authors used biobanked plasma samples from 72 individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC) and matched healthy controls (n=140). Then the findings were validated in an inception cohort (n=101 with UC and 50 healthy controls. In addition, a cohort of heathy twin siblings of patients with UC (n=41) were matched with healthy controls (n=37).

Key findings:

  • Six proteins (MMP10, CXCL9, CCL11, SLAMF1, CXCL11 and MCP-1) were up-regulated (P < .05) in preclinical ulcerative colitis compared with controls
  • MMP10, CXCL9, CXCL11, and MCP1, but not CCL11 and SLAMF1, were significantly up-regulated among the healthy twin siblings. This up-regulation is triggered by exposure to genetic and early environmental factors.

The discussion elaborates on the role of these proteins.

  • MMP10 is classified as a stromelysin. Upregulated levels of stromelysin have been detected in inflamed segments of the colon from patients with ulcerative colitis….The observed preclinical upregulation of MMP10 [thought to promote wound healing] in plasma might indicate that endogenous pathways for wound healing are up-regulated several years before clinically overt ulcerative colitis to counteract disease progression and maintain mucosal homeostasis”
  • “Eotaxin (CCL11) is a potent chemoattractant of monocytes…eosinophilic-driven inflammation represents an early element in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis”
  • CXCL9 and CXCL11 has been observed previously in inflamed colonic tissue specimens and blood from patients with ulcerative colitis… Both chemokines are regulated by IFN-gamma and attract CXCR3-positive CD4þ T cells and natural killer cells to the inflammatory site”

My take: This study shows up-regulation of 6 plasma proteins indicating activation of both pro-inflammatory and tissue-repairing pathways several years before clinically overt UC. It offers hope of intervention to prevent the development of UC.

Related study: S-H Lee et al. Gastroenterol 2021; 161: 1540-1551. Open Access: Anti-Microbial Antibody Response is Associated With Future Onset of Crohn’s Disease Independent of Biomarkers of Altered Gut Barrier Function, Subclinical Inflammation, and Genetic Risk

In this study, the authors measured host serum antibody response to 6 microbial antigens at enrollment (Prometheus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test: anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G, anti-OmpC, anti-A4-Fla2, anti-FlaX, anti-CBir1) and derived the sum of positive antibodies (AS).

Key finding:

“High baseline AS (≥2) (43% of cases, 11% of controls) was associated with higher risk of developing CD (adjusted odds ratio, 6.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.4–12.7; P < .001). Importantly, this association remained significant when adjusted for markers of gut barrier function, fecal calprotectin, C-reactive protein, and CD-polygenic risk score, and in subjects recruited more than 3 years before diagnosis. Causal mediation analysis showed that the effect of high AS on future CD development is partially mediated (42%) via preclinical gut inflammation.

Unpacking the Pivotal Ozanimod (True North) Trial

WJ Sandborn et al. NEJM 2021; 385: 1280-1291. Ozanimod as Induction and Maintenance Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis

This study led to FDA approval of ozanimod (Zeposia) in May 2021 for ulcerative colitis.

Mechanism of Action: Ozanimod is a selective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator which leads to internalization of S1P1 receptors in lymphocytes and the prevention of lymphocyte mobilization to inflammatory sites.

Design: There were two initial cohorts of adults with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. The first cohort (n=645) of this 52-week multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (285 sites, 30 countries) of ozanimod as induction and maintenance therapy received either 1 mg of ozanimod hydrochloride once a day or placebo. A second cohort (n=457) received open-label ozanimod and was designed to assure that there would be adequate numbers of patients for the maintenance phase. The design allowed up to 30% of the first cohort to have received prior anti-TNF therapy and up to 50% of the second cohort to have received prior anti-TNF therapy. Ozanimod-treated patients with a clinical response during the 10-week induction were randomized again to a treatment group (n=230) or a placebo group for maintenance (n=227). Placebo-treated patients with a clinical response continued to receive placebo.

Approximately 97% of both cohorts had received prior aminosalicylate treatment and ~20% had received prior vedolizumab therapy.

As a safety measure (due to concerns of bradycardia), there was a 7-day period at the start of treatment with dose escalation, starting at 0.25 mg on days 1-4, 0.5 mg on days 5-7, then to 1 mg thereafter.

Key findings:

  • The incidence of clinical remission was significantly higher among patients who received ozanimod than among those who received placebo during both induction (18.4% vs. 6.0%, P<0.001) and maintenance (37.0% vs. 18.5% [among patients with a response at week 10], P<0.001). 
  • The incidence of clinical response was also significantly higher with ozanimod than with placebo during induction (47.8% vs. 25.9%, P<0.001) and maintenance (60.0% vs. 41.0%, P<0.001).
  • Histologic remission during induction, ozanimod vs placebo: 15.% vs 5.8%.
  • A post hoc analysis showed decreases in the rectal-bleeding and stool-frequency subscores by week 2 (1 week after the completion of dose adjustment).
From NEJM Twitter Feed

Safety Concerns:

  • Serious adverse events attributed to ozanimod or placebo occurred in 4 (0.5%) and 2 (0.9%) during induction respectively and none and 1 (0.4%) respectively during maintenance.
  • Overall all adverse events during induction occurred in 40% of ozanimod-treated patients and 38% of placebo recipients; during maintenance, adverse events were 49% and 37% respectively.
  • Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) decreased by a mean of ~54% from baseline to week 10 in ozanimod-treated patients; ALC was <200 in 1.1% (both cohorts) in induction and 17 patients during maintenance. None of the patients with ALC <200 experienced a serious or opportunistic infection.
  • Serious infections associated wtih ozanimod or placebo occurred in 10 (1.3%) and 1 (0.5%) during induction respectively and 2 (0.9%) and 4 (1.8%%) respectively during maintenance.
  • Common infections like nasopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infections in 3-4% of ozanimod-treated patients compared to ~2% of placebo-treated patients
  • Cancer: during induction there was one ozanimod-treated patient who had a basal cell carcinoma and during maintenance there was one ozanimod-treated patient who had a basal cell carcinoma. In the placebo group, during maintenance there was one patient who developed adenocarcinoma of the colon and one who developed breast cancer.
  • Among ozanimod-treated patients, bradycardia was evident in 5 (~0.6%) during induction and none during maintenance. (Patients with significant cardiovascular history were excluded from trial)
  • Among ozanimod-treated patients, hypertension occurred in 13 (~1.6%) during induction and 4 (1.7%); in the placebo group, none in the induction period and three (1.3%) in the maintenance had hypertension.
  • Prior to entry, the trial required documented varicella zoster IgG antibody or completion of vaccination. Still, HSV occurred in 3 during induction (~0.5%) and 5 (2.2%) during maintenance (only 1 placebo patient (0.4%) had an HSV infection during maintenance.
  • Elevated liver tests associated wtih ozanimod or placebo occurred in 42 (5.3%) and 2 (0.9%) during induction respectively and 32 (13.9%) and 1 (5.3%%) respectively during maintenance.
  • Macular edema was noted in 2 ozanimod-treated patients during induction and 1 during maintenance.

My take: This study shows that ozanimod was more effective than placebo in adults with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. It will probably be years before we have adequate pediatric data.

From NEJM Twitter Feed

Vedolizumab vs Adalimumab: Histology Outcomes from Varsity Trial

L Peyrin-Biroulet et al. Gastroenterol 2021; Open Access DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.06.015. Histologic Outcomes With Vedolizumab Versus Adalimumab in Ulcerative Colitis: Results From An Efficacy and Safety Study of Vedolizumab Intravenous Compared to Adalimumab Subcutaneous in Participants With Ulcerative Colitis (VARSITY)

In total, 769 patients received vedolizumab (n = 383) or adalimumab (n = 386). Geboes Index and Robarts Histopathology Index (RHI) scores were used to assess prespecified histologic exploratory end points of histologic remission (Geboes <2 or RHI ≤2) and minimal histologic disease activity (Geboes ≤3.1 or RHI ≤4) at weeks 14 and 52.

Key findings:

Vedolizumab induced greater histologic remission than adalimumab:

  • week 14: Geboes: 16.7% vs 7.3%, RHI: 25.6% vs 16.1%
  • week 52: Geboes: 29.2% vs 8.3%, RHI: 37.6% vs 19.9%
  • Histologic outcomes were generally better in anti–TNF-naïve vs -failure patients

My take: This study shows that histologic outcomes with vedolizumab, similar to clinical outcomes, were better than with adalimumab. Some of this difference could be due to the trail design which did not allow optimization of adalimumab dosing.

Related posts:

ImproveCareNow Work in Progress

P Kandavel et al. JPGN 2021; 73: 345-351. Reduced Systemic Corticosteroid Use among Pediatric Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Large Learning Health System

In this study of 27,321 patients enrolled in the ImproveCareNow (ICN) learning health system, key findings:

  • Corticosteroid use decreased from 28% (2007) to 12% (2018)
  • Black patients received corticosteroids more commonly than white patients. This disparity improved as corticosteroid use decreased in both groups
  • Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha medication use <120 days after diagnosis was associated with a reduction in corticosteroid use
  • As corticosteroid use decreased, steroid-sparing therapy use increased and height and weight z scores improved, particularly among children with Crohn disease
  • 27 centers (31%) had a significant reduction in steroid use, 5 (6%) had a significant increase, and 45 (52%) had variability in steroid use. 9 centers (11%) had <2 years of data.

My take: These findings are expected but nice to see. Patients in the ICN are using less steroids and growing better. Given the variation in care among centers, there is more work needed.

From JPGN twitter feed

Related blog posts:

Expert Consensus: New Recommendations for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

AS Cheifetz et al. Am J Gastroenterol 2021;116: 2014-2025. A Comprehensive Literature Review and Expert Consensus Statement on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Biologics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (published online August 13, 2021)

Key recommendations:

  • The panel agreed that reactive TDM should be used for all biologics for both primary nonresponse and secondary loss of response
  • It was recommended that treatment discontinuation should not be considered for infliximab or adalimumab until a drug concentration of at least 10–15 mg/mL was achieved
  • Consensus was also achieved regarding the utility of proactive TDM for anti–tumor necrosis factor therapy. It was recommended to perform proactive TDM after induction and at least once during maintenance.
  • More data are needed with regard to proactive TDM for biologics other than anti-TNF agents
  • There are no differences in interpreting TDM between originator biologics and biosimilars
  • When considering switching within drug class in case of secondary loss of response to a first anti-TNF drug because of the development of antidrug antibodies, an immunomodulator should be added to a subsequent anti-TNF therapy
  • Low-titer antidrug antibodies can be overcome by treatment optimization (dose escalation, dose interval shortening, and/or addition of an immunomodulator)

My take: This article should help support the practice of proactive TDM and discourage stopping anti-TNF agents until an adequate therapeutic level is achieved.

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.