IBD Updates: Dietary Patterns and Disease Activity, Ustekinumab in SUSTAIN study, INSPECT Study for Perianal Fistulas

BN Limketkai et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022; 28: 1627-1636. Open Access! Dietary Patterns and Their Association With Symptoms Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. This retrospective study with dietary surveys of 691 participants found the following:

  • Compared with WD1 (typical Western Diet), PB2 (Plant-based diet 2) was associated with lower odds of active symptoms for CD (odds ratio [OR], 0.32
  • PB1 (Plant-based diet 1) was associated with lower odds of active symptoms for participants with UC (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.90) but not for participants with CD (OR, 0.95

Diet PB1 (“Plant-based Diet 1”) was characterized by much higher intake of fruits, vegetables, plant-based proteins, and cooked grains than most other dietary clusters. There was low water intake in favor of juices and other beverages. There was otherwise average intake of added fats and oils, sugars, seafood, and dairy products, and modest intake of meats, eggs, mixed grains, and breads.

Diet PB2 (“Plant-based Diet 2”) was characterized by high intake of fruits, vegetables, plant proteins, and cooked grains and low intake of animal proteins (especially red and cured meats), added fats, sweetened beverages, sweet bakery products, other desserts, eggs, and breads. There was also a reduction of other beverages in favor of water. There was otherwise an average intake of seafood and dairy products.

M Chaparro et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022; 28: 1725-1736. Open Access! Long-Term Real-World Effectiveness and Safety of Ustekinumab in Crohn’s Disease Patients: The SUSTAIN Study In this retrospective study, 97% of the 463 patients had received prior biological therapy.

  • At week 16, 56% had remission, 70% had response
  • 26.1% required dose escalation or intensification
  • After a median follow-up of 15 months, 356 (77%) patients continued treatment.
  • Previous intestinal surgery and concomitant steroid treatment were associated with higher risk of ustekinumab discontinuation.
  • Neither concomitant immunosuppressants nor the number of previous biologics were associated with ustekinumab discontinuation risk

J Panes et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022; 28: 1737-1745. Open Access! INSPECT: A Retrospective Study to Evaluate Long-term Effectiveness and Safety of Darvadstrocel in Patients With Perianal Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease Treated in the ADMIRE-CD Trial

Background: The current chart review study evaluated the longer-term effectiveness and safety of darvadstrocel (expanded allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells).; n=43 treated patient and n=46 controls.

Key findings:

  • At 52, 104, and 156 weeks posttreatment, clinical remission was observed in 29 (67.4%) of 43, 23 (53.5%) of 43, and 23 (53.5%) of 43 darvadstrocel-treated patients, compared with 24 (52.2%) of 46, 20 (43.5%) of 46, and 21 (45.7%) of 46 control subjects, respectively.

Trial by Diet Approach for Crohn’s Disease in Children

RS Boneh et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepato 2021; 19: 752-759. Dietary Therapies Induce Rapid Response and Remission in Pediatric Patients With Active Crohn’s Disease

The authors collected  data from a multicenter randomized trial of the CD exclusion diet (CDED) in children (mean age, 14.2 ± 2.7 y) with Crohn’s disease who were randomly assigned to groups given either exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN, n = 34) or the CDED with 50% (partial) enteral nutrition (PEN) (n = 39). 

The CDED has been discussed previously on this blog; it aims to avoid animal and saturated fat, milk fat, gluten, specific emulsifiers, taurine, red (reduced heme) and processed meat, and certain fibers from some fruits and vegetables. In addition to excluding patients who received competing therapies (eg. steroids, immunomodulators, and biologics), the authors excluded patients with isolated large bowel disease (L2).

Key findings:

  • At week 3 of the diet, 82% of patients in the CDED group and 85% of patients in the EEN group had a dietary response or remission. Median serum levels of C-reactive protein had decreased from 24 mg/L at baseline to 5.0 mg/L at week 3 (P < .001)
  • Among the 49 patients in remission at week 6, 46 patients (94%) had had a diet response or remission by week 3 and 81% were in clinical remission by week 3

The authors note that the rapid response to dietary therapy suggests a role for a ‘trial by diet’. As such, dietary therapy could be used as monotherapy, for patients failing other therapies, or as a bridge to biological therapy. The authors note that the exact reasons for response to dietary therapy are unsettled and could be “due to both foods excluded and foods enriched in the diet.” In addition, they note that diet appears to be a trigger for inflammation and that reintroduction of foods leads to rebound in inflammation (eg. higher calprotectin) and dysbiosis.

My take: This study shows that dietary therapy works quickly. In this small study, the effectiveness of combined CDED with 50% PEN was similar to EEN.

Related blog posts:


Eosinophilic Esophagitis -FAQs

A recent FAQ on Eosinophilic Esophagitis  Ronak Patel, MD  Ikuo Hirano, MD, AGAF: Full Text -GIHepNews (August 2020) Eosinophilic esophagitis: Frequently asked questions (and answers) for the early-career gastroenterologist

One aspect about this review that I liked was the dietary step-up –step-down therapy figure:

Reference: J Molina-Infante et al. J Allergy and Clincal Immunology. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2017.08.038 Step-up empiric elimination diet for pediatric and adult eosinophilic esophagitis: The 2-4-6 study Results:  A TFGED (2-food) achieved EoE remission in 56 (43%) patients, with no differences between ages. Food triggers in TFGED responders were milk (52%), gluten-containing grains (16%), and both (28%). EoE induced only by milk was present in 18% and 33% of adults and children, respectively. Remission rates with FFGEDs (4-food) and SFGEDs (6-food) were 60% and 79%, with increasing food triggers, especially after an SFGED. Overall, 55 (91.6%) of 60 of the TFGED/FFGED responders had 1 or 2 food triggers. Compared with the initial SFGED, a step-up strategy reduced endoscopic procedures and diagnostic process time by 20%.

Related blog posts:

Expert Guidance on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Part 3)

A recent issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology focused solely on the clinical features and management of inflammatory bowel disease. Even for those with expertise in IBD, there is a lot of useful information and concise reviews of what is known.

Here are some of my notes from this issue (part 3):

RP Hirten et al. Clinical Gastroenterol Hepatol: 2020; 18: 1336-45. A User’s Guide to De-escalating Immunomodulator and Biologic Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

This article emphasizes the need for assessment of bowel disease activity before attempting de-escalation and provides a list of risk factors for flare-up off therapy.

Some of the Risk factors for Disease Flare with De-escalation:

  • Disease activity/abnormal biomarkers (CRP, WBC, Hemoglobin, Calprotectin)
  • Perianal disease
  • Penetrating disease
  • Extensive disease involvement
  • Abnormal bowel wall thickening on MRE
  • Young age at diagnosis
  • Short treatment duration
  • Prior surgeries

Key points:

  • In individuals on combination therapy, dropping immunomodulator therapy (but not biologic therapy) did NOT increase the short term risk of a flare up in a recent Cochrane review.  However, this did impact anti-TNF kinetics and lowers anti-TNF troughs.
  • With regard to stopping biologics, among patients in deep remission, the authors advise counseling patients (CD and UC) that stopping biologic agents results in a “40-50% relapse over the following 2 years that will further increase over time.”
  • Careful followup is recommended if a patient elects to stop biologic therapy. “CD and UC are progressive relapsing conditions…and approximately 80% of subjects” require re-initiation of biologic therapy with 7 years.”
  • “Repeat colonoscopy or imaging should be performed if a significant change in symptoms occurs or abnormal biomarkers are detected.”
  • In patients who resume infliximab, the authors advocate for an initial induction of 0, 4, and 8 weeks.  The presence of antidrug antibodies at week 2 “precludes drug administration and alternative agent should be started.”

Related blog posts:

M Kaur et al Clinical Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020; 18: 1346-55. Inpatient Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Related Complications

This article reviews the approach to acute severe ulcerative colitis which has been discussed recently on this blog post and offers management recommendations for complications related to Crohn’s disease including abscesses, strictures/bowel obstruction.  With regard to abscess management, the authors note that medical therapy is more likely to be effective in those with a first-time abscess, spontaneous origin, right lower quadrant location, and smaller abscess size (<3 cm).  Stricture with upstream dilatation of bowel, multi-loculated abscesses and steroid use are features that make therapy less likely to be successful.

Related blog posts -ASUC:

Abscess-related blog posts:

EL Barnes et al Clinical Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020; 18: 1356-66. Perioperative and Postoperative Management of Patients With Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

This article reviews risk factors for disease recurrence after surgery, presurgical management (eg. minimize steroids, improve nutrition, do not delay surgery based on preoperative biologic exposure), postoperative strategies and management of pouchitis.

  • In those at high risk for postoperative disease recurrence, the authors advocate anti-TNF therapy plus an immunomodulator with colonoscopy at 6-12 months. In those at low risk, many are placed on no medications and have a colonoscopy at 6 months postoperatively.
  • The section on pouchitis lists alternatives to metronidazole and ciprofloxacin if these lose efficacy.  This includes amoxicillin-clavulanate, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, doxycycline and vancomycin.
  • Related blog post: What’s Going on With Pouchitis?

S Singh et al Clinical Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020; 18: 1367-80. Management of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in Special Populations: Obese, Old, or Obstetric

A Levine et al Clinical Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020; 18: 1381-92. Dietary Guidance From the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

  • The authors recommend more vegetables and fruits with CD (but low insoluble fiber if stricture present)
  • “Prudent to reduce intake of red and processed meat” with UC
  • “Prudent to increase dietary omega-3 fatty acids” from marine fish but not from dietary supplements with UC
  • ‘Prudent to use a low FODMAP diet for patients with persistent symptoms for CD and UC despite resolution of inflammation’

M Collins et al Clinical Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020; 18: 1393-1403.Management of Patients With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Enterocolitis: A Systematic Review

This study reviews colitis induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors which are similar to young patients with inherent CTLA4b deficiency.

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

CCFA: Updates in IBD Conference (part 2)

My notes from Georgia Chapter of CCFA’s conference. There could be errors of omission, transcription and/or errors in context based on my understanding.

Sandy Kim, MD –Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh

Diet in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Food for Thought

This was a terrific lecture –though much of the topic has been reviewed recently in this blog: Dietary Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Key points:

  • Changes in diet can change microbiome quickly, within 24 hrs
  • Some diets (eg. more fruit/vegetables/fish) may help lower risk of developing IBD
  • Dietary therapy, especially exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), is effective therapy for Crohn’s disease
  • Why does EEN work?  It is not clear.  There are some changes in microbiome but decrease or little change overall in microbial diversity
  • Reviewed newer dietary approaches: SCD (www.nimbal.org), CD-TREAT, Crohn’s Disease Exclusion Diet

Related blog posts:

Frank Farraye, MD –Mayo Clinic

Health Maintenance in the Adult Patient with IBD

  • Good Practice: Update Vaccinations in IBD population
  • Recent concerns include measles outbreak, and frequent occurrence of Herpes zoster
  • No evidence that vaccination exacerbates IBD
  • New Hepatitis B Recombination Vaccine (Heplisa-B) -2 doses given over one month (for patients older than 18 years. Seroprotective anti-HBs after two doses: 95.4%
  • Shingrix -new recombinant Zoster vaccine.  Overall efficacy 97.2%.  Frequent adverse reactions
  • Women with IBD should undergo annual cervical cancer screening
  • IBD patients should be seen by dermatology
  • Consider depression screening in IBD patients
  • Counsel patients to quit smoking
  • Consider bone density screening in at risk patients

One audience member (Jeff Lewis, MD) pointed out that more attention needs to be paid to depression and anxiety which are much more common and more frequently health-threatening than issues like vaccination.

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.


IBD Briefs August 2019

A Levine et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 157: 440-50.  This study found that a Crohn’s Disease Exclusion Diet plus partial enteral nutrition induced sustained remission in a 12-week prospective randomized controlled trial with 74 children.  At week 12, “76% of 37 children given CDED plus PEN were in corticosteroid-free remission compared with 14 (45.1%) of 31 children given” EEN followed by PEN.  The associated editorial on pages 295-6 provides a useful diagram of various dietary therapy components for a large number of diets that have been given for IBD.  The editorial recommends:

“For now, simple dietetic recommendations such as consuming a well-balanced diet prepared largely from fresh ingredients and thereby avoidance of emulsifiers and additives and processed foods are appropriate for all patients.  In select patients,…a trial of dietary therapy alone with a diet such as CDED could be attempted for a short period of time, with close follow-up, and with agreement with the patient that failure to fully respond is an indication to escalate therapy.”  More dietary trials are ongoing.

Related blog posts:

NJ Samadder et al Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 1807-13. In this cohort from Utah 1996-2011 with 9505 individuals with IBD, 101 developed colorectal cancer.  Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for CRC in patients with Crohn’s disease was 3.4, in ulcerative colitis 5.2, in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis 14.8.  A family history of CRC increased the risk of CRC in patients with IBD to 7.9 compared to general population.  Family hx/o CRC increased the SIR by about double the CRC risk in IBD patients without a family hx/o CRC.

CR Ballengee et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 1799-1806. In this study with 161 subjects from the RISK cohort, the authors found that elevated CLO3A1 levels in subjects with CD was associated with the development of stricturing disease but was not elevated in those with strictures at presentation and in those who did not develop  strictures.

AL Lightner et al IBD 2019; 25: 1152-68.  Short- and Long-term Outcomes After Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis in Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review.  This review included 42 papers.

  • Rates of superficial surgical site infection, pelvic sepsis, and small bowel obstruction at <30 days were 10%, 11%, and 14% respectively.
  • Rates of pouchitis, stricture, chronic fistula, incontinence and pouch failure were 30%, 17%, 12%, 20% and 8% respectively with followup between 37-109 months.
  • Mean 24-hour stool frequency was 5.

MC Choy et al IBD 2019; 25: 1169-86.  Systematic review and meta-analysis: Optimal salvage therapy in acute severe ulcerative colitis.  Among 41 cohorts (n=2158 cases) with infliximab salvage, overall colectomy-free survival was 69.8% at 12 months.  The authors could not identify an advantage of dose-intensification in outcomes, though this was used more often in patients with increased disease severity, “which may have confounded the results.”

Hood River, OR