IBD Briefs: May 2019 (Part 1)

H Khalili et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 123-29.  Using data from two prospective Swedish cohort sutdies with 83,042 participants (age 44-83 yrs), the authors determined that there was “no evidence for association between consumption of sweetened beverages and later risk of” Crohn’s disease or Ulcerative Colitis.

WJ Sandborn et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 156: 946-57.  This study published data from 354 patients who received subcutaneous abrilumab, an anti-alpha4beta7 antibody as a treatment for moderate-to-severe colitis. This 8 week treatment increased the odds of remission compared with placebo.

B Wynne et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 156: 935-45. This study showed that a psychological intervention termed “acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)” was effective in a randomized controlled trial in reducing stress and depression in patients with quiescent or mildly-active IBD (n=122). With ACT, the “primary aim is to encourage subjects to adopt positive life values and to accept adverse experiences, including thoughts, feelings and sensations that are an inevitable consequence of life.”  All program materials are available in article supplement: Full text and supplement: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.11.030

D Duricova et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 25:789-96. This study included 72 consecutive children born to mothers with IBD treated with anti-TNF therapy during pregnancy (2007-16) along with 69 unexposed controls.  Key findings: Anti-TNF therapy exposure in utero was NOT associated with a negative impact on postnatal complications, including infections, allergy, growth, or psychomotor development. Findings are limited by the small number of participants.

AW Gridnal et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 25:642-45.  The authors examined the frequency of financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) among authors of 11 relevant clinical practice guidelines for IBD in the US,  the UK, Canada, and Europe. Key finding: FCOI were frequently present with 19% prevalence among US authors, 56% in UK, 84% in Canada, and 94% in Europe.

KN Weaver et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 25:767-74. This retrospective study examined the efficacy of ustekinumab for Crohn’s disease of the pouch in 56 patients; 73% had previously been treated with anti-TNF therapy, vedolizumab or both. Key finding: 83% demonstrated a clinical response 6 months and 60% with endoscopic improvement after induction with ustekinumab. Clinical response was defined as “any improvement in symptoms …including a decrease in bowel movements, pain, or fistula drainage.”

Retiro Park, Madrid
Thanks to Jennifer

 

Most Popular GutsandGrowth Posts from Past Year

These five posts were the most popular (most views) in the past year:

This is a bike path from Canmore to Banff. I had a chance to ride an electric bike which was a lot of fun.

IBD Shorts June 2018

AL Granstrom et al. JPGN 2018; 66: 398-401. Using a nationwide Swedish registry, the authors determined that patients with a Hirschsprung disease had an increased risk of receiving a diagnosis of IBD (OR 4.99).  In total 20 of 739 HD patients, developed IBD.

T Card et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018; 24: 953-9.  This article questions the ‘what is the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy ..with vedolizumab?  The authors are not certain.  But they state that after reviewing 54,619 patient-years “there have been no cases of PML reported in association with vedolizumab use.”

LCT Buer et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018; 24: 997-1004. This case report of 10 patients describes combination therapy with anti-TNF therapy with vedolizumab. “At the end of follow-up, all patients were in clinical remission, and 8 patients could discontinue anti-TNF treatment.”

OJ Adedokun et al. Gastroenterol 2018; 154: 1660-71. This study examined pharmocokinetics and response of ustekinumab in patients with Crohn’s disease from 701 patients in phase 3 studies..  “Trough concentrations was approximately threefold higher in patients given ustekinumab at 8-week intervals compared with 12-week intervals…Trough concentrations of 0.8 (or even up to 1.4 mcg/mL) or greater were associated with maintenance of clinical remission.”  Also, “concentrations of ustekinumab did not seem to be affected by cotreatment with immunomodulators.”

View from Pine Mountain

Predicting Response to Vedolizumab and Ustekinumab for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

A recent review (A Barre, JF Colmbrel, R Ungaro. Alim Pharm Ther 2018 DOI: 10.1111/apt.14550) discusses predictors of response to vedolizumab and ustekinumab for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thanks to Ben Gold for this reference.

Background:

  • “Vedolizumab is a humanised monoclonal gut-selective antibody against α4β7 integrin and inhibits the trafficking of inflammatory cells to the intestine.”
  • From Vedolizumab GEMINI trials, , “primary response to vedolizumab was typically evaluated at week 14 after induction with rates of clinical remission and clinical response ranging between 24%-36% and 49%-64% in CD, and 23%-39% and 43%-57% in UC, respectively”
  • “Ustekinumab is a monoclonal IgG1 antibody against the p40 subunit of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-23 (IL-23) that targets both the T-helper 1 and T-helper 17 pathways involved in the pathogenesis of CD.”
  • With Ustekinumab, “in real-world observational studies, patients were treated off-label and received highly variable induction and maintenance dosing, thus limiting the generalizability of results. The rates of response were reported to be as high as 84% and remission rates as high as 35% at end of induction, with loss of response in around one-third of patients during maintenance”

Key points:

  • Patients with severe disease (by clinical activity and inflammatory biomarkers), and prior anti-TNF exposure are less likely to respond to vedolizumab.
  • Ileocolonic disease, no prior surgery and uncomplicated phenotype were associated with better responses to ustekinumab in CD

With ustekinumab, in particular, there is still very limited data on its effectiveness and long-term outcomes and this is even more the case in pediatrics. This review does a good job in compiling the current available data.

My take: While this is a nice review, it does not help me much with developing an algorithm for how I will use these relatively new medications for IBD.

Related blog posts:

Bright Angel Trail

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: Ustekinumab (Stelara)

The ability to measure drug levels has changed how we think about refractory medical disease, particularly in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.  Prior to the availability of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), in some situations poor response to therapy could be ascribed to variability in host immune response. Now, it is clear that many cases of refractory medical disease are due to insufficient drug level.  TDM allows for dose individualization to target the right amount of medication.

TDM has an accepted role in anti-TNF therapy.  Now, a study (R Battat et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 15: 1427-34) extends the concept of TDM to ustekinumab.  This study which took place between 2014-2015 examined ustekinumab use in 62 patients with refractory Crohn’s disease (CD).  Ustekinumab dosing: 90 mg SC at weeks 0, 1, and 2 for induction, then 90 mg every 4 or 8 weeks for maintenance.

Key findings:

  • At week 26, 80.7% of patients had a clinical response, 66.1% had a clinical remission, and 58.9% had an endoscopic response.
  • In those with an endoscopic response, the mean trough concentration of ustekinumab was 4.7 mcg/mL compared with 3.8 mcg/mL those without an endoscopic response.
  • Using a trough threshold of 4.5 mcg/mL at week ≥26, 75.9% had an endoscopic response whereas those with a level below this trough had a 40.7% endoscopic response
  • The authors did not detect antibodies to ustekinumab in any patient. The authors note that ustekinumab has low immunogenicity and prior UNITI studies indicated antibody formation in 0.2% after induction and 2.3% at 1 year.
  • Unlike combination therapy with anti-TNF therapy, “concurrent immunosuppressive therapy does not explain low immunogenicity, as only 25.8% of patients received these and had neither improved clinical outcomes nor higher drug concentrations.”

Thus far, no clinical studies have demonstrated improved clinical outcomes with dose escalation in the setting of low ustekinumab levels.  A prospective trial would be helpful.

My take: This study shows promising results for ustekinumab for refractory CD.  The low immunogenicity indicates that monotherapy is likely appropriate.  A target level of >4.5 mcg/mL indicates a higher likelihood of response.

Related blog posts:

#NASPGHAN 17 More Abstracts

This link for the NASPGHAN abstracts :NASPGHAN 2017 Scientific Abstracts

The following slides are from some of the abstract posters. This first poster (next 5 pics) showed that symptom association with meals is not predictive of aspiration among a selected group of children who underwent swallow study evaluations. In the figures, the blue bars are children who passed the swallow study whereas the red bars indicate the children who failed the swallow study.

This next slide demonstrated that a six food diet for EoE could be administered blenderized via a gastrostomy tube.

The next slide showed that irritable bowel syndrome was more frequent (overall hazard ratio of 1.52) following a urinary tract infection in the first year of life.

The next pictures are from a poster discussing high rates of recurrent C difficile infection following fecal microbial transplantation in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (mainly ulcerative colitis).  An inference from this study would be that many cases of C difficile that were attributed as causing symptoms could in fact have been from a flare up of their IBD.  More details about the diagnosis of C difficile (based on PCR or ELISA) would be helpful

The next poster provides data from CHOP experience with Ustekinumab.  Overall, in this highly-selected (refrcactory) population the long term improvement was low; while one-third had steroid-free remission at week 8, this was not maintained at week 16 and week 24.  In addition, among the 22 patients, one developed transverse myelitis.

This study that follows (next two pics) documented the relative safety of liver biopsies (mainly percutaneous without interventional radiology) in the post-transplant period.  The two most serious adverse events, cholangitis and bile leak, helped identify biliary strictures.

The following collaborative study examined the neurocognitive status of children with Alagille syndrome.  Overall, this study shows that children with Alagille syndrome are at increased risk of low IQ compared to children with other cholestatic diseases.

 

 

More Data for Ustekinumab in Crohn’s Disease

Briefly noted: C Ma et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2017; 23: 833-9.  This retrospective study examined the response to ustekinumab in 104 patients with Crohn’s disease.  All patients had achieved a steroid-free ustekinumab induction.  92.3% had failed anti-TNFα therapy.

Key findings:

  • 71.8% maintained a response at 52 weeks
  • 64.4% maintained an endoscopic or radiographic response