Precision Dosing with Vedolizumab in Pediatrics

RJ Colman et al. AP&T 2022; https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.17277. Open access! Real world population pharmacokinetic study in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease discovers novel blood and stool microbial predictors of vedolizumab clearance

“The study included data from 463 observed vedolizumab concentrations (59 peaks and 404 troughs) from 74 patients with IBD (52 with Crohn’s disease and 22 with ulcerative colitis or unclassified IBD, median age 16 years)…This study was part of the multicentre REFINE study, which aimed to investigate paediatric PK factors among different biological therapies. Both induction and maintenance doses were between 6 and 10 mg/kg for patients less than 30 kg and 300 mg for patients above 30 kg.”

Key findings:

  • “Using the new model in a simulation analysis of standard vedolizumab infusions (0, 2 and 6 weeks followed by every 8 weeks), we demonstrate that the expected cTrough at week 22 (infusion-5) in the majority of patients would result in drug exposure below current cTrough targets..The dosing simulations in our current study found that receiving standard dosing would lead to <20% of patients achieving a cTrough of 20 μg/ml at infusion-5.”
  • “The severity of hypoalbuminemia resulted in higher drug CL (lower cTrough) than the inflammatory burden (elevated ESR).”
  • Infusion-3 cTrough of at least 37 μg/ml and infusion-4 cTrough of at least 20 μg/ml best predicted SFCR (steroid-free clinical remission) at infusion-4. In contrast, we showed inadequate drug exposure during induction (AUCweek 14 of <134,580 μg h/ml) was associated with clinical non-response

My take: This study shows that therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is likely to be beneficial in improving outcomes in pediatric patients receiving vedolizumab. Low albumin in particular is associated with increased drug clearance. From this study, it looks like most pediatric patients will need dosing every 4 to 6 weeks to achieve good levels. The authors in their discussion reinforce the utility of TDM to “guide anti-TNF dose optimisations has been shown to improve durability and reduce both immunogenicity and loss of response.”

References:

13 Dubinsky MC, Mendiolaza ML, Phan BL, Moran HR, Tse SS, Mould DR. Dashboard-driven accelerated infliximab induction dosing increases infliximab durability and reduces immunogenicity. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2022; 28: 1375– 85.

51 Strik AS, Löwenberg M, Mould DR, Berends SE, Ponsioen CI, van den Brande JMH, et al. Efficacy of dashboard driven dosing of infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2021; 56: 145– 154.

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

IBD Updates: SC Vedolizumab, PRODUCE study: Specific Carbohydrate Diet, Racial Epidemiology of IBD, and Microbiome in UC

Briefly noted –all of these articles are open access:

A Volkers et al. AP&T 2022; https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.17153 Open access: Real-world experience of switching from intravenous to subcutaneous vedolizumab maintenance treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. In this prospective cohort study, patients (n=135) with IBD who had ≥4 months IV vedolizumab were switched to SC vedolizumab. 

Key findings:

  • 4 patients with Crohn’s disease had loss of response.
  • 9% of patients were switched back to IV vedolizumab due to adverse events or fear of needles.
  • Median clinical and biochemical disease activity remained stable after the switch. Median vedolizumab serum concentrations increased from 19 μg/ml at the time of the switch to 31 μg/ml 12 weeks after the switch (p < 0.005).

Related blog posts:

HC Kaplan et al. Am J Gastroenterol 2022 Jun 1;117(6):902-917. Open access: Personalized Research on Diet in Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease: A Series of N-of-1 Diet Trials. In this study, 21 patients (completed trial) were randomized to 1 of 2 sequences of 4 alternating 8-week SCD (specific carbohydrate diet) and MSCD (modified specific carbohydrate diet) periods.

Key findings: “SCD and MSCD did not consistently improve symptoms or inflammation.” “Some individuals had improvement in symptoms and fecal calprotectin compared with their UD, whereas others did not.” The authors note that it took 18 months to recruit 54 patients for this study across 19 research sites.

Related blog posts:

EL Barnes et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022; 28: 983-987. Open access: Racial and Ethnic Distribution of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the United States The authors electronic health records from 337 centers from January 2013 to December 2018 with nearly 40 million patients in U.S.

Key findings:

  • Black adult patients were significantly less likely than White patients to have a diagnosis of CD (odds ratio [OR], 0.53) or UC (OR, 0.41). Pediatric Black patients were also less likely to have a diagnosis of CD (OR, 0.41) or UC (OR, 0.38)
  • Adult Hispanic patients were less likely to have a diagnosis of CD (OR, 0.33) or UC (OR, 0.45) compared with non-Hispanic patients. Similarly, pediatric Hispanic patients were less likely to have a diagnosis of CD (OR, 0.34) or UC (OR, 0.50).
  • Thus, these data suggest that CD and UC are modestly less prevalent among patients of non-White races and Hispanic ethnicity

M Frioirksmork et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022; 28: 1081-1089. Open access: Similar Gut Bacterial Composition Between Patients With Ulcerative Colitis and Healthy Controls in a High Incidence Population: A Cross-sectional Study of the Faroe Islands IBD Cohort. This cross-sectional study from the Faroe Islands (which has very high incidence of IBD) consisted of 41 patients with established ulcerative colitis and 144 age- and sex-matched healthy controls.

Key findings: There was a similarity in bacterial community composition and absence of the beneficial Akkermansia genus in both groups.

Increased Risk, Increased Reward (possibly) with Tofacitinib

T Straatmijer et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022; Full text Pre-Proof PDF: Superior effectiveness of tofacitinib compared to vedolizumab in anti-TNF experienced ulcerative colitis patients: a nationwide Dutch Registry study. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2022.04.038

Methods: Ulcerative colitis patients who failed anti-TNF treatment and initiated vedolizumab (n=83) or tofacitinib (n=65) treatment, were identified in the ICC Registry in the Netherlands.

Key findings:

  • Tofacitinib treated patients were more likely to achieve corticosteroid-free clinical remission and biochemical remission at week 12, 24 and 52 compared to vedolizumab treated patients (OR: 6.33, OR: 3.02, and OR 1.86 and OR: 3.27, OR: 1.87, and OR:1.81, respectively).
  • There was no difference in infection rate or severe adverse events.

My take: The response rates with tofacitinib were significantly better than vedolizumab at all time points; however, by 52 weeks, the differences were less pronounced. Nevertheless, the safety profile of vedolizumab is much more favorable than tofacitinib and this is a very important consideration.

Related blog posts -Tofacitinib:

ENTERPRISE Study: Vedolizumab for Perianal Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease

DA Schwartz et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022; 20: 1059-1067. Open Access: Efficacy and Safety of 2 Vedolizumab Intravenous Regimens for Perianal Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: ENTERPRISE Study

Methods: “Patients with moderately to severely active CD and 1–3 active perianal fistulae (identified on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) received vedolizumab 300 mg intravenously at weeks 0, 2, 6, 14, and 22 (VDZ) or the same regimen plus an additional vedolizumab dose at week 10 (VDZ + wk10)… Enrollment was stopped prematurely because of recruitment challenges”

Key findings:

  • “Rapid and sustained fistula closure was observed; 53.6% (VDZ, 64.3%; VDZ + wk10, 42.9%) and 42.9% (VDZ, 50.0%; VDZ + wk10, 35.7%) of patients achieved ≥50% decrease in draining fistulae and 100% fistulae closure, respectively, at week 30”
  • “MRI healing, defined as the disappearance of T2 hyperintensity signal and absence of gadolinium contrast enhancement,3 was not reached in this study…gadolinium contrast enhancement showed improvement at week 30…MRI studies have shown that internal fistulae healing lags behind clinical remission by a median of 12 months”
Figure 1
Figure 2 B

The study findings are limited by relatively small size and lack of control group (eg. placebo or seton/antibiotic group). However, the rate of response in this study is significantly higher than placebo studies which have shown “~1 in 6” who experienced fistula closure.

My take: Vedolizumab is another option for treating Crohn’s disease with perianal fistula. Both regimens in this study were associated with response, though the additional 10-week dose (in one group) did not improve outcomes.

Related blog posts:

Vedolizumab for Refractory Microscopic Colitis, Plus, Vedolizumab and Serious Infections

LC Shipley et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022; 20: 455-457. Vedolizumab Therapy in Refractory Microscopic Colitis: A Single Center Case Series

In this report, the authors describe nine patients with refractory microscopic colitis (median age 55 years) who were treated with vedolizumab.

Key findings:

  • Clinical response with induction in 9 (100%); time to >50% response ranged from 1 to 7 weeks with 5 patients responding within 2 weeks.
  • Sustained response with maintenance therapy in 6 (67%); duration of follow-up ranged from 1 month to 15 months. The three patients without response had symptom duration of 10 yrs, 12 yrs, and 25 yrs prior to institution of vedolizumab.
  • Only two patients had histologic follow-up. While both had clinical response, the patient with lymphocytic colitis had histologic resolution whereas a patient with collagenous colitis had histologic persistent.

My take: Given vedolizumab’s favorable safety profile, further studies (with endoscopic endpoints) of vedolizumab are needed to define its efficacy for microscopic colitis.

Another study with vedolizumab: J Kirchgesner et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022; 20: 314-324. Risk of Serious Infections With Vedolizumab Versus Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Key finding: The risk of serious infections was not different between vedolizumab and anti-TNF in the overall IBD cohort (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0·79-1.13), while the risk was decreased for vedolizumab users in patients with UC (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50-0.93), but not CD (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.87-1.38)

Related blog post/related article:

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

IBD Shorts: Fecal Calprotectin in UC & Medication Withdrawal, Outcome of Biosimilar Reverse Switches, Vedolizumab after Anti-TNF Therapy

TW Stevens et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021; 19: 2333-2342. Open Access. Diagnostic Accuracy of Fecal Calprotectin Concentration in Evaluating Therapeutic Outcomes of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis

Key finding: A post hoc analysis of data from a phase 4 trial (the MOMENTUM trial) found that, even in patients (n=593 at week 8, n=305 at week 52) with complete endoscopic healing of UC, FC concentration can be used to discriminate patients with ongoing microscopic inflammation from patients with histologic remission.  The optimal FC cut-off concentrations for identification of patients with histologic remission were 75 μg/g at week 8 and 99 μg/g at week 52.

A Cassinotti et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021; 19: 2293-2301. Noninvasive Monitoring After Azathioprine Withdrawal in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Deep Remission

Key finding: In this prospective study, 57 patients in deep remission stopped azathioprine after a median of 7 years. 26 (46%) relapsed within a median of 15 months. Fecal calprotectin (FC) levels were >50 mcg/g in all patients with relapse (FC specificity 100%) but the sensitivity was only 50%. Thus, having a normal FC does not preclude relapse but elevated FC is associated with relapse.

S Mahmmod et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021; 27: 1954-1962. Outcome of Reverse Switching From CT-P13 to Originator Infliximab in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

In this retrospective study, 75 patients, 9.9% of all patients, who had been changed from originator infliximab to a biosimilar had clinical worsening. Key finding: Improvement of reported symptoms was seen in 73.3% of patients after reverse switching back to originator infliximab; alsor 7 out of 9 patients (77.8%) with loss of response regained response

J Kim et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021; 27: 1931-1941. Clinical Outcomes and Response Predictors of Vedolizumab Induction Treatment for Korean Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Who Failed Anti-TNF Therapy: A KASID Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

Key finding: Clinical remission rates with vedolizumab among patients with CD (n=80) and patients with UC (n=78) were 44.1% and 44.0%. Among patients with UC, the endoscopic remission rate was 32.4%

Vedolizumab vs Adalimumab: Histology Outcomes from Varsity Trial

L Peyrin-Biroulet et al. Gastroenterol 2021; Open Access DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.06.015. Histologic Outcomes With Vedolizumab Versus Adalimumab in Ulcerative Colitis: Results From An Efficacy and Safety Study of Vedolizumab Intravenous Compared to Adalimumab Subcutaneous in Participants With Ulcerative Colitis (VARSITY)

In total, 769 patients received vedolizumab (n = 383) or adalimumab (n = 386). Geboes Index and Robarts Histopathology Index (RHI) scores were used to assess prespecified histologic exploratory end points of histologic remission (Geboes <2 or RHI ≤2) and minimal histologic disease activity (Geboes ≤3.1 or RHI ≤4) at weeks 14 and 52.

Key findings:

Vedolizumab induced greater histologic remission than adalimumab:

  • week 14: Geboes: 16.7% vs 7.3%, RHI: 25.6% vs 16.1%
  • week 52: Geboes: 29.2% vs 8.3%, RHI: 37.6% vs 19.9%
  • Histologic outcomes were generally better in anti–TNF-naïve vs -failure patients

My take: This study shows that histologic outcomes with vedolizumab, similar to clinical outcomes, were better than with adalimumab. Some of this difference could be due to the trail design which did not allow optimization of adalimumab dosing.

Related posts:

Vedolizumab Exposure in Newborns

M Juulsgard et al. AP&T 2021: https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.16593. Vedolizumab clearance in neonates, susceptibility to infections and developmental milestones: a prospective multicentre population-based cohort study

Key findings:

  • In 50 vedolizumab-exposed pregnancies, we observed 43 (86%) live births, seven (14%) miscarriages, no congenital malformations and low risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes
  • The mean time to vedolizumab clearance in infants was 3.8 months (95% CI, 3.1-4.4)
  • No infant had detectable levels of vedolizumab at 6 months of age
  • Developmental milestones at 12 months were normal or above average
  • Neither vedolizumab exposure in the third trimester (RR 0.54, 95% CI, 0.28-1.03) nor combination therapy with thiopurines (RR 1.29, 95% CI, 0.60-2.77) seemed to increase the risk of infections in the offspring

My take: Given the good safety profile of vedolizumab, this small study provides additional reassurance regarding use of vedolizumab during pregnancy.

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

IBD Shorts: Tofacitinib Safety, Vit D post-op, EIM with Vedolizumab

P Deepak et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021; 19: 1592-1601. Full Text: Safety of Tofacitinib in a Real-World Cohort of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis

This study described a ‘real-world’ experience with tofacitinib for Ulcerative Colitis in 260 adults; five patients developed HZ infection and 2 developed VTE (all receiving 10 mg tofacitinib, twice per day).

Related blog posts -Tofacitinib:

JR de Bruyn et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021; 19: 1573-1582. Full Text: High-Dose Vitamin D Does Not Prevent Postoperative Recurrence of Crohn’s Disease in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

Methods: Patients with CD after ileocolonic resection with ileocolonic anastomosis were assigned randomly to groups given weekly 25,000 IU oral vitamin D (n = 72) or placebo (n = 71) for 26 weeks, at 17 hospitals in The Netherlands and Belgium, from February 2014 through June 2017

Key finding: The cumulative rate of clinical recurrence did not differ significantly between the groups (18.1% in the vitamin D group vs 18.3% in the placebo group; P = .91). Though, the Vit D group achieved higher levels at week 26 (81 vs 43 of 25-OH Vit D)


GP Ramos et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021; 27: 1270-1276. The Impact of Vedolizumab on Pre-Existing Extraintestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Multicenter Study

Key findings (n=201, retrospective study):

  • Worsening of EIMs after VDZ occurred in 34.8% of patients
  • Peripheral arthritis (PA) (68.2%) was most common EIM
  • Treatment using VDZ was discontinued specifically because of EIMs in 9.5% of patients

Related blog post: Vedolizumab and Extraintestinal Manifestations of IBD

2021 AGA Guidelines For Crohn’s Disease

A series of articles details the 2021 AGA Guidelines for Crohn’s disease (CD) including a clinical practice guideline (pg 2496-2508), a clinical decision support tool (2509-2510), a spotlight summary (pg 2511), a technical review (2512-2557), and a review of the recommendations (pg 2557-2262). I will highlight the first article.

JD Feuerstein et al. Gastroenterol 2021; 160: 2496-2508. Full text: AGA Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Medical Management of Moderate to Severe Luminal and Perianal Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease

Full text: Spotlight

For me the most important of their recommendations was #7:

  • In adult outpatients with moderate to severe CD, the AGA suggests early introduction with a biologic with or without an immunomodulator rather than delaying their use until after failure of 5-aminosalicylates and/or corticosteroids.

Other points:

From Spotlight: