AGA Recommendations for Management of Functional Symptoms in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Full text: AGA Clinical Practice Update on Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Expert Review (JF Columbel et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 380-90).

My take: Overall, this article presents a concise review of a tricky problem and appropiriate management.  The algorithm, tables and figures are useful.

Best practice advice 1: A stepwise approach to rule-out ongoing inflammatory activity should be followed in IBD patients with persistent GI symptoms (measurement of fecal calprotectin, endoscopy with biopsy, cross-sectional imaging).

In the report, the authors note that endoscopy and cross-sectional imaging are not needed in all patients; mainly in patients with a suspected flare based on presentation, calprotectin, and blood work.

Best practice advice 2: In those patients with indeterminate fecal calprotectin levels and mild symptoms, clinicians may consider serial calprotectin monitoring to facilitate anticipatory management.

Best practice advice 3: Anatomic abnormalities or structural complications should be considered in patients with obstructive symptoms including abdominal distention, pain, nausea and vomiting, obstipation or constipation.

Best practice advice 4: Alternative pathophysiologic mechanisms should be considered and evaluated (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, bile acid diarrhea, carbohydrate intolerance, chronic pancreatitis) based on predominant symptom patterns.

Best practice advice 5: A low FODMAP diet may be offered for management of functional GI symptoms in IBD with careful attention to nutritional adequacy.

Best practice advice 6: Psychological therapies (cognitive behavioural therapy, hypnotherapy, mindfulness therapy) should be considered in IBD patients with functional symptoms.

Best practice advice 7: Osmotic and stimulant laxative should be offered to IBD patients with chronic constipation.

Best practice advice 8: Hypomotility agents or bile-acid sequestrants may be used for chronic diarrhea in quiescent IBD.

Best practice advice 9: Antispasmodics, neuropathic-directed agents, and anti-depressants should be used for functional pain in IBD while use of opiates should be avoided.

Best practice advice 10: Probiotics may be considered for treatment of functional symptoms in IBD.

Best practice advice 11: Pelvic floor therapy should be offered to IBD patients with evidence of an underlying defecatory disorder.

Best practice advice 12: Until further evidence is available, fecal microbiota transplant should not be offered for treatment of functional GI symptoms in IBD.

Best practice advice 13: Physical exercise should be encourage in IBD patients with functional GI symptoms.

Best practice advice 14: Until further evidence is available, complementary and alternative therapies should not be routinely offered for functional symptoms in IBD.

Monticello

Mortality Risk from Childhood Inflammatory Bowel Disease

A recent study (O Olen et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 156: 614-22) was summarized quite succinctly by NEJM journal watch:

Using the Swedish National Patient Registry data, investigators identified 9442 incident cases of IBD diagnosed in patients under age 18 years from 1964 through 2014. Based on 139,000 person-years of follow-up, results were as follows:

  • There were 259 deaths among people with IBD (133 were from cancer and 54 from digestive disease).
  • The all-cause mortality rate in these patients was 2.1/1000 person-years, compared with 0.7 in matched reference individuals from the general population.
  • The average age at death was 61.7 compared with 63.9 years in the reference group.
  • The hazard ratio for death was 3.2 and was higher in those with ulcerative colitis (HR, 4.0), especially if they had concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (HR, 12.2), a first-degree relative with ulcerative colitis (HR, 8.3), or a history of surgery (HR, 4.6).
  • Mortality risks were similar when limited to the period after the introduction of biologics (2002–2014).

My take: This study found that having IBD diagnosed in childhood increased the risk of mortality (~1 extra death for every 700 patients followed for 1 year) especially in patients with concomitant PSC and in patients with severe ulcerative colitis.  The study did not see an effect of the newest therapies but was underpowered to directly assess this effect.

Related blog post:

 

Chattahoochee River, near Azalea Drive

 

NY Times: Five Things I Wish I’d Known Before My Chronic Illness

A recent article describes some of the challenges of dealing with Crohn’s disease (thanks to Kayla Lewis for pointing out this reference).

NY Times: Five Things I Wish I’d Known Before My Chronic Illness

Key Points:

  • Your relationships change” “It’s hard to be a good employee when you need extended time off. It’s hard to be a good friend when you cancel plans last minute. It’s hard to be a good partner or parent when you barely have the energy to get out of bed. “
  • Everyone offers you advice” “So unless someone asks for your advice, don’t offer it. If you’re on the receiving end of misguided advice, say something like, “I appreciate that you’re trying to help, but my doctors and I think this treatment is best right now” or “There’s no known cure for my disease, but I’d love if you donated toward the research to find one!”
  • You have to educate yourself — and everyone else
  • Support is everything”  Online communities can be helpful. ” The Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation has resources to help you find one. For a sometimes embarrassing “bathroom disease” like IBD, this is especially vital.”

Joshua Tree National Park

IBD Update Feb 2019

Briefly noted:

B Feagan et al. Systematic review: efficacy and safety of switching patients between reference and biosimilar infliximab. Alim Pharm Ther 2019 Jan;49(1):31-40. “While available data have not identified significant risks associated with a single switch between reference and biosimilar infliximab, the studies available currently report on only single switches and were mostly observational studies lacking control arms. Additional data are needed to explore potential switching risks in various populations and scenarios.”

MP Pauly et al. Incidence of Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation and Hepatotoxicity in Patients Receiving Long-term Treatment with Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 16: 1964-73. Using data from 8887 adults, this retrospective review found  “HBV reactivation iin 39% of patients who were HBsAg+ before therapy, but not in any patients who were HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc+ before therapy.”

D Lauritzen et al. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Should We Be Looking for Kidney Abnormalities? Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018; 24: 2599-2605. In a cross-sectional cohort of 56 children with IBD, the authors found 25% “had either previously reported kidney disease or ultrasonographic signs of chronic kidney disease.” The authors note that plasma cystatin C is a useful biomarker for glomerular filtration as it less dependent on nutritional status; it is increased in the setteing of a decline in GFR.

L Pouillon et al. Mucosal Healing and Long-term Outcomes of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Receiving Clinic-Based vs Trouhg Concentration-Based Dosing of Infliximab. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 16: 1276-83.  This retrospective study with patients who completed TAXIT maintenance phase found that patients who received trough-based infliximab dosing had a lower discontinuation rate of infliximab compared with clinic-based dosing (2 of 21 [10%]  vs. 10 of 27 [37%]).  However, both groups had >75% of patients able to continue infliximab for more than 3 years after the trial.

N Ouldali et al. Early Arthritis Is Associated With Failure of Immunosuppressive Drugs and Severe Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Evolution. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018; 24: 2423-30. In this retrospective study with 272 patients with Crohn’s disease, 23.9% (n=65) developed arthritis and this was associated with failure of immunosuppressive drugs with OR of 6.9 after 2 years. In this study, immunosuppressive drugs refers to thiopurines and methotrexate.  By the completion of study, a much greater proportion of those with arthritis required biologic treatment (76% vs 32%, OR 4.3)

Sex-Based Differences in Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Briefly noted: SC Shah, H Khalili et al. Gastroenterol 2018; 155: 1079-89.

This study evaluated pooled data with 207,600 incident cases of IBD from a population of 478 million. Key findings:

  • Female patients had lower a lower risk of Crohn’s disease during childhood until 10-14 years of age, but then a risk afterwards
  • For ulcerative colitis, there was a divergence in risk after 45 years of age, when men had a significantly higher incidence.

My take: the differences indicate that genetic factors (men with a Y chromosome and only one chromosome X) along with sex hormones play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD.

Graphs depict Female/Male Incidence Rate Ratio

AGREE proceedings: Briefly noted: ES Dellon, CA Liacouras, J Molina-Infante, GT Furuta et al. Gastroenterology 2018; 155: 1022-33.  This report provides updated recommendations from AGREE conference –which have been widely cited previously on this blog and elsewhere.  One of the remarkable features on this report is the fact that there are 64 authors (by my count) –thus reading the affiliations and the conflict of interest disclosures alone would take some time.

For a good review on this topic:

Do Biologics Alter the Natural History of Crohn’s Disease in Children?

An important recent study (B Kerur et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 16: 1467-73 & editorial C Ballengee S Kugasthasan 1398-1400) examined the impact of biologic therapies on Crohn’s disease progression and need for surgery in 1442 children (age, ≤16 y) between 2002-14. This study examined data from the Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Collaborative Research Group registry.

Key findings:

  • Early use of biologics (n=145) was associated with slowing of disease progression (hazard ratio 0.85, CI 0.76-0.95).  Those who received anti-TNF therapy within three months of diagnosis were less likely to develop stricturing (B2) or penetrating (B3) disease.
  • Early anti-TNF therapy did not effect progression to surgery. Surgery rates were 4% at 1 year, 13% at 5 years, and 26% at 10 years.
  • Of those who needed surgery, ~15% already had their first bowel-related surgery in the first 90 days after diagnosis.
  • The study cohort at diagnosis included only 51 with B2 disease, 27 with B3, and 11 with both B2 & B3.  Thus, these three disease phenotypes represented ~6% of the entire cohort.

In the editorial, the authors state that this study “is a sobering reminder that we apparently have not changed the long-term course of CD for our pediatric patients.”  Though, at the same time, they explain how this study had some limitations which could have affected some of the conclusions.

  • In contrast to the RISK study, this study classified patients as B1 who progressed to B2 or B3 in the first 3 months of diagnosis.  Including these patients decreased the chance to show improvement with early biologic therapy.
  • Also, this cohort included a lower percentage of African American patients compared to the RISK study (8% vs 13%).  This also lowered the likelihood of identifying improvement;  these patients are more likely to develop penetrating disease which can be prevented with early biologic therapy (RISK study: Kugasthasan S et al. Lancet 2017; 389: 1710-8).

Also, one other finding of the study was that there was a paradoxical increase in the risk of surgery in the first 5 years in the early biologic group. “This suggests that our practicing pediatric gastroenterologists may have selected the sicker patients to start biologics.”

My take: I think biologics do influence the natural history of Crohn’s disease in children.  However, this study suggests that the magnitude of that alteration is suboptimal.

Related blog post: CCFA update 2017 -RISK study presentation