@MondayNightIBD and Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis Algorithm

A summary of the discussion and more detailed information on this topic from Gastroenterology and Endoscopy News (4/20/22): Open Access: ASUC: A Medical and Surgical Emergency Requiring Comprehensive, Timely Multidisciplinary Care

Lab workup per article:

For infliximab salvage therapy, the article recommends re-dosing at 3-5 days after initial dose.

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition

“For Hospitalized Patients With ASUC, 5-ASA Adds No Value to Steroids”

From Gastroenterology and Endoscopy News (4/25/22): Open Access: For Hospitalized Patients With ASUC, 5-ASA Adds No Value to Steroids

In the first prospective randomized study, presented at the 2022 Crohn’s & Colitis Congress and published in Inflammatory Bowel Dis (S Ben-Horin et al 2022;28 [suppl 1]:S14 CORTICOSTEROIDS AND 5ASA VERSUS CORTICOSTEROIDS ALONE FOR ACUTE SEVERE ULCERATIVE COLITIS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL), investigators at 10 centers in six countries randomly assigned 149 patients hospitalized for ASUC to receive daily doses of 300 mg of hydrocortisone (or equivalent methylprednisolone) alone or in combination with 4 g of mesalamine.

Key findings:

  • 72.6% of patients receiving combination corticosteroids with 5-ASA responded to treatment at one week compared with 76.3% of responders in the group receiving corticosteroids alone
  • “There were no differences in hospital length of stay between groups (median, 10 vs. nine days for the combination and monotherapy groups, respectively), the proportion of patients whose C-reactive protein level normalized (34.2% vs. 34.3%, respectively), or the proportion requiring colectomy within 90 days (4.9% vs. 4.5%, respectively).”
  • While 5-ASAs did not alter the trajectory of acute colitis, one other finding was a lower rate of biologic use (27% vs 47%, P=.07) at 90 days in those who continued to receive 5-ASA therapy at 90 days.

My take: 5-ASAs do not appear to be helpful during hospitalization for ASUC but may be beneficial as a maintenance therapy in some patients.

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition

Early Assessment of Acute Ulcerative Colitis with ACE (Albumin, CRP, & Endoscopy)

A recent study showed that admission albumin, CRP and early endoscopy were predictive of outcomes with ulcerative colitis patients admitted for a corticosteroids: RK Grant et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021; 27: 451-457. Full text (free) The ACE (Albumin, CRP and Endoscopy) Index in Acute Colitis: A Simple Clinical Index on Admission that Predicts Outcome in Patients With Acute Ulcerative Colitis

This retrospective study had 235 patients (median age 38 years). 90% had endoscopy at a median of 2 days from admission. Key findings:

  • 155 of the 235 patients (66.0%) responded to steroids
  • 78.1% (25 of 32) of patients with concurrent CRP ≥50 mg/L, albumin ≤30 g/L, and increased endoscopic severity (severe on physician’s global assessment) (maximum score = 3) did not respond to IV steroids (positive predictive value [PPV] 78.1%, negative predictive value [NPV] 87.1%).
  • Comparison with Truelove and Witts Score: 56 of 119 (47.1%) of those classed TWS severe did not respond to steroids. Previously TWS score of acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC), defined by at least 6 bloody stools per day plus at least 1 marker of systemic disturbance has been associated with a 19% risk of colectomy during admission.

My take: In patients with ulcerative colitis who present with low albumin and high CRP values, early escalation of medical therapy is highly likely; don’t forget to check a PPD or quantiferon Gold assay early on.

Related blog posts:

Azalea bush (March 2021)

A Definite Maybe: Antibiotics for Acute Severe Colitis

D Turner et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020; 26: 1733-1742. Antibiotic Cocktail for Pediatric Acute Severe Colitis and the Microbiome: The PRASCO Randomized Controlled Trial

This randomized study with 28 children with acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) (PUCAI > /= 65) tried to determine if antibiotics with IV corticosteroids resulted in improved outcomes compared to IV corticosteroids alone. Most in the antibiotic group received the following for 3 weeks:

  • Vancomycin 250 mg 4/day (if less than 8 years, then 125 mg 4/day)
  • Amoxicillin 50 mg/kg/day divided into 3/day dosing (max 500 mg/dose)
  • Metronidazole 5 mg/kg/dose 3/day (max 250 mg/dose)
  • Doxycycline 2 mg/kg/dose 2/day (children less than 7 years rec’d ciprofloxacin 10 mg/kg 2/day -max 250 mg/dose)

Key findings:

  • The mean day-5 PUCAI was 25 ± 16.7 in the abx/steroid combination group vs 40.4 ± 20.4 in the steroid monotherapy group (P = 0.037)
  • Median calprotectin values were lower in the abx combination group at day 5 (1202 vs. 2170, P=0.24) and at discharge (1210 vs 1840, P=0.695)
  • The need for 2nd line rescue therapy was low in both groups: 19% in abx group and 17% in the steroid group
  • Within 1 year, 3/16 (19%) in the abx combination group had had a colectomy compared with 2/12 (17%) in the steroid monotherapy.
  • The authors found no correlation between microbial features/microbiome at admissioin and clinical response 5 days later

In their discussion, the authors note that if antibiotics had a treatment benefit as high as 30% in avoiding second-line treatment (ie, 14% in intervention arm), “randomization of 1228 children would be required to show such a difference with a power of 80%.”

My take: I agree with the authors who state that “antibiotics cannot be routinely recommended until larger studies demonstrate a reduced need for second-line treatment or colectomy.”

Related blog posts:

Ravenel Bridge, Charleston, SC

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition

AGA Guidelines: Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis

Full Text: JD Feuerstein et al. Gastroenterol 2020; 158: 1450-61. AGA Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis

Full Tex PDF: AGA Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis

 

Associated articles included the following:

  • Clinical decision support tool (1462-63)
  • PDF: Spotlight (summary -images above) (1464)
  • Technical Review (1465-96)

Key recommendations:

  • 2a. In adult outpatients with moderate to severe UC who are naïve to biologic agents, the AGA suggests using infliximab or vedolizumab rather than adalimumab, for induction of remission. Comment: Patients, particularly those with less severe disease, who place higher value on the convenience of self-administered subcutaneous injection, and a lower value on the relative efficacy of medications, may reasonably chose adalimumab as an alternative
  • 2c. In adult outpatients with moderate to severe UC who have previously been exposed to infliximab, particularly those with primary nonresponse, the AGA suggests using ustekinumab or tofacitinib rather than vedolizumab or adalimumab for induction of remission.
  • 6. In adult outpatients with moderate to severe UC, the AGA suggests early use of biologic agents with or without immunomodulator therapy rather than gradual step up after failure of 5-ASA. Comment: Patients, particularly those with less severe disease, who place higher value on the safety of 5-ASA therapy and lower value on the efficacy of biologic agents or tofacitinib may reasonably chose gradual step therapy with 5-ASA therapy.
  • 10. In hospitalized adult patients with ASUC refractory to intravenous corticosteroids, the AGA suggests using infliximab or cyclosporine

Summary of recommendations:

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition

A Little More Data on Antibiotic Cocktail for Pediatric Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis

A recent prospective study (D Turner et al. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, izz298, https://doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izz298) with 28 children found improvement in 5-day PUCAI scores in patients who received quadruple antibiotics in combination with IV corticosteroids compared to those who received IV corticosteroids alone.

Link: Antibiotic Cocktail for Pediatric Acute Severe Colitis and the Microbiome: The PRASCO Randomized Controlled Trial

Methods:

Hospitalized children with ASC (pediatric ulcerative colitis activity index [PUCAI] ≥65) were randomized into 2 arms: the first received antibiotics in addition to IVCS (amoxicillin, vancomycin, metronidazole, doxycycline/ciprofloxacin [IVCS+AB]), whereas the other received only IVCS for 14 days. The primary outcome was disease activity (PUCAI) at day 5. Microbiome was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene and metagenome.My t

Results

Twenty-eight children were included: 16 in the AB + IVCS arm and 12 in the IVCS arm (mean age 13.9 ± 4.1 years and 23 [82%] with extensive colitis). The mean day-5 PUCAI was 25 ± 16.7 vs 40.4 ± 20.4, respectively (P = 0.037). Only 3 and 2 children, respectively, required colectomy during 1-year follow-up (P = 0.89). Microbiome data at time of admission were analyzed for 25 children, of whom 17 (68%) had a predominant bacterial species (>33% abundance); response was not associated with the specific species, whereas decreased microbiome

My take: Combination antibiotic therapy appears to improve disease activity in children with acute severe ulcerative colitis.  More and larger studies are needed to determine whether this is associated with improved long-term outcomes as well as which antimicrobials are optimal.

Related blog posts -ASUC:

Related blog posts -Calprotectin:

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition

Year in Review: My Favorite 2019 Posts

Yesterday, I listed the posts with the most views.  The posts below were the ones I like the most.

General/General Health:

Nutrition:

Liver:

Endoscopy:

Intestinal Disorders:

 

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

 

Briefly noted: Mortality in Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis

C Dong et al. AP&T 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.15592

Link: Systematic review with meta‐analysis: mortality in acute severe ulcerative colitis

Key point:

  • “Six population‐based studies with 741,743 patients and 47 referral centre‐based studies with 2556 patients were included. The pooled 3‐month and 12‐month mortalities were respectively 0.84% and 1.01%”

Related blog posts:

Quebec City

 

IBD Briefs August 2019

A Levine et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 157: 440-50.  This study found that a Crohn’s Disease Exclusion Diet plus partial enteral nutrition induced sustained remission in a 12-week prospective randomized controlled trial with 74 children.  At week 12, “76% of 37 children given CDED plus PEN were in corticosteroid-free remission compared with 14 (45.1%) of 31 children given” EEN followed by PEN.  The associated editorial on pages 295-6 provides a useful diagram of various dietary therapy components for a large number of diets that have been given for IBD.  The editorial recommends:

“For now, simple dietetic recommendations such as consuming a well-balanced diet prepared largely from fresh ingredients and thereby avoidance of emulsifiers and additives and processed foods are appropriate for all patients.  In select patients,…a trial of dietary therapy alone with a diet such as CDED could be attempted for a short period of time, with close follow-up, and with agreement with the patient that failure to fully respond is an indication to escalate therapy.”  More dietary trials are ongoing.

Related blog posts:

NJ Samadder et al Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 1807-13. In this cohort from Utah 1996-2011 with 9505 individuals with IBD, 101 developed colorectal cancer.  Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for CRC in patients with Crohn’s disease was 3.4, in ulcerative colitis 5.2, in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis 14.8.  A family history of CRC increased the risk of CRC in patients with IBD to 7.9 compared to general population.  Family hx/o CRC increased the SIR by about double the CRC risk in IBD patients without a family hx/o CRC.

CR Ballengee et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 1799-1806. In this study with 161 subjects from the RISK cohort, the authors found that elevated CLO3A1 levels in subjects with CD was associated with the development of stricturing disease but was not elevated in those with strictures at presentation and in those who did not develop  strictures.

AL Lightner et al IBD 2019; 25: 1152-68.  Short- and Long-term Outcomes After Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis in Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review.  This review included 42 papers.

  • Rates of superficial surgical site infection, pelvic sepsis, and small bowel obstruction at <30 days were 10%, 11%, and 14% respectively.
  • Rates of pouchitis, stricture, chronic fistula, incontinence and pouch failure were 30%, 17%, 12%, 20% and 8% respectively with followup between 37-109 months.
  • Mean 24-hour stool frequency was 5.

MC Choy et al IBD 2019; 25: 1169-86.  Systematic review and meta-analysis: Optimal salvage therapy in acute severe ulcerative colitis.  Among 41 cohorts (n=2158 cases) with infliximab salvage, overall colectomy-free survival was 69.8% at 12 months.  The authors could not identify an advantage of dose-intensification in outcomes, though this was used more often in patients with increased disease severity, “which may have confounded the results.”

Hood River, OR

Tofacitinib Case Reports for Acute Severe UC and Pyoderma Gangrenosum

Two recent case reports indicate that Tofacitinib may be useful in refractory cases of acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) (JA Berinstein et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 988-90) and for pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) (B Kochar et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 991-93)

The case report for ASUC described 4 patients who received off-label high-intensity tofacitinib.  Initially dosing was 10 mg 3 times a day for 9 doses with subsequent transition to standard dosing.  All four patients had a rapid improvement, though one patient required a colectomy 6 months later and one patient required urgent colectomy after rapid return of symptoms when tofacitinib dose was reduced.

The case report for PG involved 3 patients -two healed with tofacitinib and one improved considerably; the latter patient required dose escalation to 10 mg twice a day.  To understand the mechanism of action further, the authors performed immunohistochemical staining from skin biopsy specimens from two patients and detected “strong staining of phosphorylated JAK-1, phosphorylated JAK-2, phosphorylated JAK-3…in the epidermis.”  Tofacitinib is an oral JAK-1/JAK-3 inhibitor.  In all of these patients, inflammatory arthritis was the indication for tofacitinib.

My take: Due to tofacitinib’s rapid onset of action as well as its rapid clearance, it is a promising agent for both acute severe ulcerative colitis and pyoderma gangrenosum.  More clinical trials are needed.

Related blog posts -Tofacitinib:

Related blog posts -ASUC:

Related blog posts -PG:

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

Image below is from an unrelated tweet.