IBD Shorts: Tofacitinib Safety, Vit D post-op, EIM with Vedolizumab

P Deepak et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021; 19: 1592-1601. Full Text: Safety of Tofacitinib in a Real-World Cohort of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis

This study described a ‘real-world’ experience with tofacitinib for Ulcerative Colitis in 260 adults; five patients developed HZ infection and 2 developed VTE (all receiving 10 mg tofacitinib, twice per day).

Related blog posts -Tofacitinib:

JR de Bruyn et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021; 19: 1573-1582. Full Text: High-Dose Vitamin D Does Not Prevent Postoperative Recurrence of Crohn’s Disease in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

Methods: Patients with CD after ileocolonic resection with ileocolonic anastomosis were assigned randomly to groups given weekly 25,000 IU oral vitamin D (n = 72) or placebo (n = 71) for 26 weeks, at 17 hospitals in The Netherlands and Belgium, from February 2014 through June 2017

Key finding: The cumulative rate of clinical recurrence did not differ significantly between the groups (18.1% in the vitamin D group vs 18.3% in the placebo group; P = .91). Though, the Vit D group achieved higher levels at week 26 (81 vs 43 of 25-OH Vit D)


GP Ramos et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021; 27: 1270-1276. The Impact of Vedolizumab on Pre-Existing Extraintestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Multicenter Study

Key findings (n=201, retrospective study):

  • Worsening of EIMs after VDZ occurred in 34.8% of patients
  • Peripheral arthritis (PA) (68.2%) was most common EIM
  • Treatment using VDZ was discontinued specifically because of EIMs in 9.5% of patients

Related blog post: Vedolizumab and Extraintestinal Manifestations of IBD

What Can We Conclude from Five Patients Treated with a Combination of Infliximab and Tofacitinib?

Most often a letter to the editor would not grab my attention. A recent letter did: Full Text: Tofacitinib Is Safe and Effective When Used in Combination With Infliximab for the Management of Refractory Ulcerative Colitis (R Gilmore et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021; 1302-1303; reply 1303-1304 by JA Berinstein et al.)

This reported case series with 5 patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC) who received a combination of tofacitinib and infliximab for at least 90 days were retrospectively reviewed. Tofacitinib dosing was de-escalated to 5 mg twice daily after 8 weeks. Thiopurine therapy was stopped with tofacitinib initiation.

Key findings:

  • Median duration of combination therapy was 9 months (range, 4–12 months). At 90 days, all patients had a reduction in Mayo score of ≥3. Four patients improved clinically and biochemically (Table 1), with 3 patients achieving steroid-free remission.
  • The only adverse event reported was one patient developing varicella zoster.

The authors letter title regarding tofacitinib being “safe and effective” is clearly overstated. The reply notes that in limited experience the group from the University of Michigan had a 50-year-old man develop severe pulmonary and CNS disease due to acquisition of legionnaires disease while on combination tofacitinib and infliximab.

My take: (borrowed from reply) “Efficacy and safety data obtained through rigorous randomized trials are needed…it is possible that long-term use of combination tofacitinib and infliximab will lead to an unacceptable risk of infection.”

Another study of tofacitinib: GR Lichtenstein et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021; 27: 816-825. Tofacitinib, an Oral Janus Kinase Inhibitor: Analysis of Malignancy (Excluding Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer) Events Across the Ulcerative Colitis Clinical Program Key finding: With an exposure of 2576.4 patient years & 124 overall cohort tofacitinib-treated patients, 20 developed a malignancy

Related blog post:

Key West, FL

A New FDA Warning for Tofacitinib

2/4/21: FDA: Initial safety trial results find increased risk of serious heart-related problems and cancer with arthritis and ulcerative colitis medicine Xeljanz, Xeljanz XR (tofacitinib)

“The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is alerting the public that preliminary results from a safety clinical trial show an increased risk of serious heart-related problems and cancer with the arthritis and ulcerative colitis medicine Xeljanz, Xeljanz XR (tofacitinib) compared to another type of medicine called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. FDA required the safety trial, which also investigated other potential risks including blood clots in the lungs and death. Those final results are not yet available….

Patients should not stop taking tofacitinib without first consulting with your health care professionals, as doing so may worsen your condition. Talk to your health care professionals if you have any questions or concerns.”

Related blog post: FDA Warning on Tofacitinib (July 2019)

Drug Therapy for Celiac Disease: Case Report

Briefly noted: L Waters et al. Annals Int Med 2020; doi:10.7326/L20-0497. Celiac Disease Remission With Tofacitinib

The authors describe a male with a well-documented case of celiac disease and alopecia areata.  He was placed on tofacitinib off-label for his alopecia areata and it was discovered that his celiac disease had developed “complete histologic and serologic remission…while he was still on a gluten-containing diet.”  Prior to medication, he had confirmation of both severe histologic changes and high tTG IgA titers.

The authors note that tofacitinib inhibits CD8+ T-cell mediated enteropathy in a transgenic mouse model.

My take (borrowed from authors): Tofacitinib has many potential adverse effects but may considered for further study, especially in refractory celiac disease.

Table –From Annals of Internal Medicine Twitter Feed

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For those interested in voting by mail in November -don’t miss the deadline!

Highlights in IBD from Two 2019 Meetings: American College of Gastroenterology and United European Gastroenterology Week

Gastroenterology & Hepatology. December 2019 – Volume 15, Issue 12, Supplement 5

Excerpts from William Sandborn Commentary which are at the end of this supplement along with references:

Vedolizumab

In the VARSITY study (An Efficacy and Safety Study of Vedolizumab Intravenous [IV] Compared to Adalimumab Subcutaneous [SC] in Participants With Ulcerative Colitis), 769 patients with ulcerative colitis were randomized to a year of therapy with either adalimumab at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved dose or vedolizumab at the FDA-approved dose…This shows that the idea that vedolizumab (and anti-integrin therapy) is slower-acting than anti-TNF therapy is not correct, and that both of these classes of drugs can work fairly quickly in a number of patients.

Dr Brian Bressler and colleagues looked at the effectiveness of anti-TNF therapy in the real world when used second line after failing first-line biologic therapy with vedolizumab…The study conducted by Dr Bressler and colleagues, which included both Crohn’s disease patients and ulcerative colitis patients, found that the results were fairly similar whether patients received first-line biologic therapy with an anti-TNF agent or whether patients received first-line therapy with vedolizumab… It is generally thought that vedolizumab is a safer therapy than anti-TNF therapy, so with the finding from this study, a reasonable treatment approach could be to start with vedolizumab and see if it works

Dr Christina Chambers and colleagues identified outcomes for pregnancy in 223 women, 53 of whom received vedolizumab. The researchers found that there were no major structural birth defects reported in the vedolizumab group, compared to 5.7% and 5.3% in the disease-matched group and healthy control group, respectively. Thus, there seemed to be no signal for an increased malformation risk in patients who were undergoing treatment with vedolizumab and became pregnant.

Adalimumab

The SERENE trials are a set of head-to-head trials, one for ulcerative colitis and one for Crohn’s disease, comparing standard-dose adalimumab to a more intensive induction regimen of adalimumab…

For both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, the SERENE trials showed that the current FDA-approved dosing regimen is effective and that more intensive induction therapy does not improve outcomes over time. Thus, there is no utility in giving high induction doses. 

Tofacitinib

Over 1000 patients who had been treated with tofacitinib were examined…during induction and maintenance of the placebo-controlled portion of the tofacitinib clinical trials, there were a total of 5 deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli events. All 5 occurred in patients who were receiving placebo; none of these events occurred in patients who were receiving tofacitinib…[And] There was a total of 5 deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli events during this long-term extension…Looking at the ulcerative colitis clinical trial data that I presented, it is somewhat reassuring that we did not see the same elevation in risk for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli that was seen in the high-risk rheumatoid arthritis patient population.

Mont Royal (Montreal)

#NASPGHAN19 Selected Abstracts (Part 2)

Link to full NASPGHAN 2019 Abstracts.

Here are some more abstracts/notes that I found interesting at this year’s NASPGHAN meeting.

A study (poster below) from Cincinnati found that a vedolizumab level ≥34.8 mcg/mL at week 6 (prior to 3rd infusion) predicted clinical response at 6 months

Related blog posts:

The poster below reported a high frequency of eosinophilic disorders in children who have undergone intestinal transplantation. Related blog post: Eosinophilic disease in children with intestinal failure

This study from Boston indicates that acid suppression was not associated with improved outcomes in infants with laryngomalacia (eg. lower supraglottoplasy rates or lower aspiration rates.

Related blog posts:

The study below showed that “less than half of children who started the low FODMAP diet were able to complete the elimination phase.” This indicates the need for careful dietary counseling when attempting this therapy.

Related blog posts:

The abstract below showed that the dietary intake of children with inflammatory bowel disease, who were not receiving enteral nutrition therapy, was similar to healthy control children.

The next two studies provide some pediatric experience with tofacitinib in teenagers with inflammatory bowel disease (14-18 years of age).  The first poster had 12 children and reported a 67% clinical response rate (cohort with 5 with CD, 5 with UC, and 2 with IC).  The second poster had 4 of 6 with a clinical response and 3 in remission.

Related blog posts -Tofacitinib:

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

“Tofacitinib: A Jak of All Trades”

The clever title is derived from an editorial (KE Burke, AN Ananthakrishan. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 1438-40) regarding three recent publications regarding Tofacitinib, a non-selective inhibitor of janus kinase (JAK) enzymes 1,2 and 3 which was FDA-approved in May 2018 for moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. This report was published prior to recent FDA warning regarding blood clots: FDA Warning on Tofacitinib

Two of the reports have been summarized previously on this blog:

The third study examines the safety of tofacitinib: W Sandborn et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 1541-50

Methods: This study analyzed data from phase 2 and phase 3 trials with 1157 patients who had a median treatment of 1.4 years (1613 person-years).  More than three-fourths were receiving 10 mg BID.

Findings:

  • Serious infections were infrequent but there was a dose response relationship associated with herpes zoster infections.  At 10 mg BID,  the frequency was 5% whereas the rate was 1.5% in those receiving 5 mg BID and 0.5% in placebo-treated patients. This is likely related to interference of interferon production related to JAK inhibitor disruption.
  • Sandborn et al conclude that the “safety profile of tofacitinib for patients with UC appeared similar to that reported for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and for patients with UC treated with biologic agents, except for the higher incidence rate of herpes zoster infection.”

The editorial recommends NOT using tofacitinib for acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC); it “should be encouraged only in selected patients and preferably in the context of a research study.”  “Infliximab and cyclosporine [should be used] for steroid refractory UC;” however, they suggest that “one can consider initiating tofacitinib PRIOR to patients becoming steroid refractory.  “It could be used upfront on day 1.”

Related blog posts -Tofacitinib:

Related blog posts -ASUC:

Ciutedella Park, Barcelona

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

FDA Warning on Tofacitinib

From FDA: 7-26-19 FDA approves Boxed Warning about increased risk of blood clots and death with higher dose of arthritis and ulcerative colitis medicine tofacitinib (Xeljanz, Xeljanz XR)

An excerpt:

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved new warnings about an increased risk of blood clots and of death with the 10 mg twice daily dose of tofacitinib (Xeljanz, Xeljanz XR), which is used in patients with ulcerative colitis…

Health care professionals should discontinue tofacitinib and promptly evaluate patients with symptoms of thrombosis. Counsel patients about the risks and advise them to seek medical attention immediately if they experience any unusual symptoms, including those of thrombosis listed above. Reserve tofacitinib to treat ulcerative colitis for patients who have failed or do not tolerate tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers. Avoid tofacitinib in patients who may have a higher risk of thrombosis. When treating ulcerative colitis, use tofacitinib at the lowest effective dose and limit the use of the 10 mg twice daily dosage to the shortest duration needed

  • 19 cases of blood clots in the lung out of 3,884 patient-years of follow-up in patients who received tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily, compared to 3 cases out of 3,982 patient-years in patients who received TNF blockers

Related blog posts:

University of Virginia

How Quickly Does Tofacitinib Work for Ulcerative Colitis?

The second study reference yesterday:

A recent study (S Hanauer et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 139-47) shows that tofacitinib can work quickly to reduce symptoms in ulcerative colitis.

In a post-hoc analyses of data from OCTAVE induction 1 and 2 (n=905 patients, n=234 placebo), the authors determined that tofacitinib reduces symptoms within 3 days.

Key findings:

  • By day 3, there was a reduction in stool frequency (-1.06 vs. -0.27 for placebo) and a reduction in rectal bleeding subscore (-0.30 vs -0.14 for placebo)
  • 28.8% of tofacitinib-treated patients had a reduction in stool frequency subscore by >1 point compared to 17.9% for placebo.  For rectal bleeding subscore, tofacitinib-treated patients had a reduction by >1 point in 32% compared to 17.9% for placebo 20.1%.

My take: This study reinforces the impression that tofacitinib works rapidly.

Related blog posts:

La Boqueria, Barcelona

Tofacitinib Case Reports for Acute Severe UC and Pyoderma Gangrenosum

Two recent case reports indicate that Tofacitinib may be useful in refractory cases of acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) (JA Berinstein et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 988-90) and for pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) (B Kochar et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 991-93)

The case report for ASUC described 4 patients who received off-label high-intensity tofacitinib.  Initially dosing was 10 mg 3 times a day for 9 doses with subsequent transition to standard dosing.  All four patients had a rapid improvement, though one patient required a colectomy 6 months later and one patient required urgent colectomy after rapid return of symptoms when tofacitinib dose was reduced.

The case report for PG involved 3 patients -two healed with tofacitinib and one improved considerably; the latter patient required dose escalation to 10 mg twice a day.  To understand the mechanism of action further, the authors performed immunohistochemical staining from skin biopsy specimens from two patients and detected “strong staining of phosphorylated JAK-1, phosphorylated JAK-2, phosphorylated JAK-3…in the epidermis.”  Tofacitinib is an oral JAK-1/JAK-3 inhibitor.  In all of these patients, inflammatory arthritis was the indication for tofacitinib.

My take: Due to tofacitinib’s rapid onset of action as well as its rapid clearance, it is a promising agent for both acute severe ulcerative colitis and pyoderma gangrenosum.  More clinical trials are needed.

Related blog posts -Tofacitinib:

Related blog posts -ASUC:

Related blog posts -PG:

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

Image below is from an unrelated tweet.