Selected Slides from NASPGHAN 2022 Postgraduate Course (Part 2)

See previous post for lecturers

Oral small molecultes in IBD. Anne Griffiths, MD
Judith Kelsen, Very early onset IBD
VEO Evaluation
VEO Treatments
Jeremy Adler and Treat to Target for IBD
Jeremy Adler and Treat to Target for IBD
Jeremy Adler and Treat to Target for IBD
Jeremy Adler and Treat to Target for IBD
Jeremy Adler and Treat to Target for IBD
Timothy Sentongo and Growth and Nutrition Issues in the NICU
Maureen Leonard and Gluten-Related Disorders Update
Maureen Leonard and Gluten-Related Disorders Update
Maureen Leonard and Gluten-Related Disorders Update
Maureen Leonard and Gluten-Related Disorders Update
Rachel Rosen and Esophageal Motor Disorders
Katja Kovacic and Functional Nausea
This study was 20 yrs ago -we can do better today

Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

Safety of Preoperative Tumor Necrosis Factor  Inhibitor Exposure in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Undergoing Intra-abdominal Surgery

BL Cohen et al. Gastroenterol; 2022; 163: 204-221. Prospective Cohort Study to Investigate the Safety of Preoperative Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Exposure in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Undergoing Intra-abdominal Surgery

Key finding:

  • Preoperative TNFi exposure was not associated with postoperative infectious complications in a large prospective multicenter cohort. Any infection (18.1% vs 20.2%, P = .469) and SSI (12.0% vs 12.6%, P = .889) rates were similar in patients currently exposed to TNFis and those unexposed.

IBD -Briefly Noted: Intestinal U/S and Anxiety/Depression Not Worsening Pediatric IBD Activity

EA van Wassenaer et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022; 28: 783-787. Open Access PDF: Intestinal Ultrasound in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Promising, but Work in Progress

Key points from this review:

  • Research has shown that IUS has the potential to be a valuable additional point-of-care tool to guide treatment choice and to monitor and predict treatment response, although evidence of its accuracy and value in clinical practice is still limited
  • The utility may be operator-dependent as well

My take: Due to low upfront costs, IUS would be appealing adjunct to current monitoring. However, one could envision IUS leading to more downstream studies (& costs), especially if its sensitivity and specificity are not very high.

EJ Brenner et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022; 28: 728-733. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Are Not Associated With Future Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity

In this internet-based cohort of 9-17 yr olds (n=159, 96% white), the authors found no association between baseline PROMIS Pediatric anxiety score and subsequent sCDAI (change in sCDAI for 3-point change in PROMIS Pediatric −0.89; 95% CI −4.81 to 3.03). This study is in contrast to studies in adults which have shown a bidirectional relationship between anxiety/depression and IBD activity.

My take: It is difficult to know with certainty whether anxiety/depression may trigger IBD activity; more studies are needed. Treatment of mental health is important regardless of its effects on IBD activity.

Related blog posts:

“We Can’t Wait” App

CCFA: We Can’t Wait: New app helps inflammatory bowel disease patients find available restrooms nearby

An excerpt: “The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation…launched the We Can’t Wait app, which provides an interactive map that allows users to find a restroom near them across the U.S.  Driven by crowd-sourced submissions and major retail and restaurant partners that contributed their restroom location data, the app empowers IBD patients – and all users – with a tool to find restrooms more easily, both in emergency and everyday situations. The app is free and available for download now.  

Related blog post: When you gotta go…looking for a clean bathroom

Can You Give Ustekinumab Subcutaneously After IV Reaction?

J Sunny et al. JPGN Reports: May 2022 – Volume 3 – Issue 2 – p e205 Open Access: Hypersensitivity Reaction to Ustekinumab in Pediatric and Young Adult Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: A Case Series

This is a case series of six pediatric patients and young adults who developed hypersensitivity reactions during intravenous infusion with ustekinumab (UST).

Key findings:

  • Hypersensitivity reactions during intravenous (IV) induction dose of UST, ranging from mild allergic reactions to anaphylaxis, with no antibodies detected in the two who had testing
  • Reactions occurred 0-30 minutes after start of infusion
  • Management was with methylprednisolone in 5 of 6 patients, diphendyramine in 3 of 6, and epinephrine in 1. One patient was managed with IV diphenhydramine alone.
  • Four of six continued with UST subcutaneously without reactions. ***Change of formulation of UST from IV to subcutaneous was done in a controlled hospital-based setting. The other two 33% were switched to another biologic due to physician preference and were never exposed to the subcutaneous formulation
  • Although the exact pathogenesis of this infusion reaction remains unknown, it has been attributed to EDTA

My take: It appears that patients with UST hypersensitivity reactions can be changed to SC formulation. The authors recommend to trial a subcutaneous dose of UST in a controlled setting; in addition, they suggest testing with skin prick testing or specific IgE levels to EDTA done by allergy and immunology.

Related blog posts:

Sandia Mountain, near Albuquerque

Good News for Fans of Gluten

EW Lopes et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022; 20: 303-313.Open Access: Dietary Gluten Intake Is Not Associated With Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in US Adults Without Celiac Disease

Key finding: In 3 large adult US prospective cohorts (n=208,280), gluten intake was not associated with risk of CD or UC in 5,115,265 person-years of follow-up evaluation.

My take (from authors): These ” findings are reassuring at a time when consumption of gluten has been increasingly perceived as a trigger for chronic gastrointestinal diseases.”

Related blog posts:

Chattahoochee River, Atlanta

Austin Bradford Hill, PPIs and IBD

KH Allin, P Moayyedi. Gastroenterol 2021; 161: 1789-191 (editorial). Open Access: Proton Pump Inhibitor Use: A Risk Factor for Inflammatory Bowel Disease or an Innocent Bystander?

This editorial helps provide needed context on the associated observational study by Xia et al (B Xia, M Yang et al. Gastroenterol 2021; 161: 1842-1852. Open Access. Regular use of proton pump inhibitor and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: pooled analysis of 3 prospective cohorts) which showed a mild increase risk of IBD among PPI users. While the PPI users were at 42% increased risk of IBD compared to nonusers, if correct, “the absolute risk associated with PPI use is modest. Number needed to harm is 3770, meaning that when 3770 individuals are treated with PPIs for 1 year, 1 additional case of IBD is observed.”

Despite the efforts of the study authors to minimize confounders, the editorial focuses on the work of Austin Bradford Hill (Proc R Soc Med. 1965; 58: 295-300. The environment and disease: association or causation?) who “realized making causal inferences on observational data was challenging and outlined a list of factors that would make this interpretation more or less likely….strength of association, dose response, and consistency are important and often not commented on in observational studies.”

In a previous “a double-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing pantoprazole with placebo over 3 years with more than 53,000 patient years follow-up found there was no association” with IBD identified…Interestingly, this trial reported a slightly higher risk of enteric infections, and this is the underlying mechanism proposed for how PPI therapy may increase the risk of IBD.”

My take (borrowed from editorial): “Most associations for PPI and harm are likely to be residual or unmeasured confounding, whether this is also true for IBD will only be determined by further study.”

Related blog posts:

Quantifying the Risk of Serious Infections in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

JF Ludvigsson et al. J Pediatr 2021; 238: 66-73. Open Access PDF Serious Infections in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease 2002-2017—A Nationwide Cohort Study

This study utilized the Swedish nationwide health registry (2002-2017; n = 5767 with IBD) and controls from the general population (n= 58,418). One reason for this study is the increased frequency and changing patterns of immunosuppressive medications that are being used in pediatric IBD. Key findings:

  • 672 serious infections (38.6/1000 person-years) occurred among the children with IBD compared with 778 serious infections in the control group (4.0/1000 person years; adjusted HR 9.46 ). HRs were increased for children with ulcerative colitis 8.48, Crohn’s disease 9.30, and IBD unclassified 12.1
  • Particularly high HRs were also seen in the first year of diagnosis with HR of 12.1 and n children with IBD undergoing surgery, HR 17.1. This 17-fold risk translates to an average of 6 per 100 children having a serious infection among those with operations.
  • 340 of the 672 serious infections were gastrointestinal, including 34 due to Clostridium difficile
  • 20 opportunistic infections were identified during 19,000 person-years

Potential risk factors for infection, besides medications, include malnutrition, chronic inflammation, impaired response to vaccination, and dysregulation of immune responses. A limitation of this study is ascertainment bias as families/patients with underlying disease may be more likely to seek medical attention for otherwise self-limited infections.

My take: This report confirms and quantitates daily clinical practice: children with IBD are more frequently hospitalized due to infections.

Related blog post: Infection or Flareup in IBD: GI PCR Panel Helps

Stillbirths associated with COVID-19: Stillbirths increased from 5.6 per 1,000 baseline to 8 per 1,000 if COVID-19 anytime during pregnancy and to 22.6 per 1,000 if COVID-19 infection began within 28 days of birth in a study of more than 130,000 Scottish births (12/1/20-10/21/21).
Reference: Stock, S.J., Carruthers, J., Calvert, C. et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination rates in pregnant women in ScotlandNat Med (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01666-2

AGA Clinical Practice: Colorectal Dysplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

SK Murthy et al. Gastroenterol 2021: DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.05.063. Full Text: AGA Clinical Practice Update on Endoscopic Surveillance and Management of Colorectal Dysplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Expert Review

Some of the recommendations:

Best Practice Advice 1: Precancerous colorectal lesions in inflammatory bowel disease should be described as either polypoid (≥2.5 mm tall), nonpolypoid (<2.5 mm), or invisible (detected on nontargeted biopsy), using a modified Paris Classification. The older terms dysplasia-associated lesion or massadenoma-like mass, and flat dysplasia (when referring to dysplasia detected in nontargeted biopsies) should be abandoned.

Best Practice Advice 3: Initial colonoscopy screening for dysplasia should be performed at 8–10 years after disease diagnosis in all people with colonic inflammatory bowel disease, and immediately on diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Staging biopsies should be taken from multiple colonic segments to assess histologic disease activity and extent and to help guide future surveillance intervals.

Best Practice Advice 8: Extensive nontargeted biopsies (roughly 4 adequately spaced biopsies every 10 cm) should be taken from flat colorectal mucosa in areas previously affected by colitis when white light endoscopy is used without dye spray chromoendoscopy or virtual chromoendoscopy. Additional biopsies should be taken from areas of prior dysplasia or poor mucosal visibility. Nontargeted biopsies are not routinely required if dye spray chromoendoscopy or virtual chromoendoscopy is performed using a high-defintion endoscope, but should be considered if there is a history of dysplasia or primary sclerosing cholangitis.

ImproveCareNow Work in Progress

P Kandavel et al. JPGN 2021; 73: 345-351. Reduced Systemic Corticosteroid Use among Pediatric Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Large Learning Health System

In this study of 27,321 patients enrolled in the ImproveCareNow (ICN) learning health system, key findings:

  • Corticosteroid use decreased from 28% (2007) to 12% (2018)
  • Black patients received corticosteroids more commonly than white patients. This disparity improved as corticosteroid use decreased in both groups
  • Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha medication use <120 days after diagnosis was associated with a reduction in corticosteroid use
  • As corticosteroid use decreased, steroid-sparing therapy use increased and height and weight z scores improved, particularly among children with Crohn disease
  • 27 centers (31%) had a significant reduction in steroid use, 5 (6%) had a significant increase, and 45 (52%) had variability in steroid use. 9 centers (11%) had <2 years of data.

My take: These findings are expected but nice to see. Patients in the ICN are using less steroids and growing better. Given the variation in care among centers, there is more work needed.

From JPGN twitter feed

Related blog posts: