Most Popular GutsandGrowth Posts from Past Year

These five posts were the most popular (most views) in the past year:

This is a bike path from Canmore to Banff. I had a chance to ride an electric bike which was a lot of fun.

With Regard to Avoiding Excessive Weight Gain, Breastfeeding is Best

A recent study (AR Goetz et al J Pediatr 2018; 201: 27-33) examines the impact of breastfeeding on the growth of infants with high birth weight (HBW).

Background: “Exclusive breastfeeding is protective against high weight and is recommended by” the AAP for the first 6 months.  In this study, the authors hypothesized that “HBW infants would receive a lower percentage of breast milk and consume more formula than NBW infants.”

Key findings:

  • HBW infants with high weights at 7-12 months of age demonstrated a rapid decline in the percentage of breast milk feedings compared with HBW infants with normal weights at 7-12 months of age.
  • Normal birth weight infants with high weights at 7-12 months of age received a lower percentage of breast milk and more formula intake that those with normal weights at 7-12 months of age.

Because HBW is associated with later risk of obesity/overweight, identifying strategies early in life is important.  Furthermore, as a recent study in NEJM has shown (M Geserick et al. NEJM 2018; 379: 1303-12), a lot of weight gain issues happen in the first years of life:

  • Almost 90% of children who were obese at 3 years of age were overweight or obese in adolescence
  • Among obese adolescents, the most rapid weight gain had occurred between 2 and 6 years of age

My take: This study further shows a strong association between consumption of breast milk and normal weights at 7-12 months of age, both in HBW and NBW.

Related blog posts:

Near Lake Louise, Banff

Losing the Obesity Battle Early in Life

A recent study (M Geserick et al. NEJM 2018; 379: 1303-12) performed a prospective and retrospective analysis of a population-based sample of 51,505 German children to examine BMI in early childhood and risk of sustained obesity.

Key findings:

  • Most normal weight adolescents had a normal weight throughout childhood
  • Half (53%) of the obese adolescents had been overweight or obese from 5 years of age onward
  • Almost 90% of children who were obese at 3 years of age were overweight or obese in adolescence
  • Among obese adolescents, the most rapid weight gain had occurred between 2 and 6 years of age

My take: We are losing the childhood obesity battle at very young ages.

Abstract and Link to 1:32 Quick Summary: Acceleration of BMI in Early Childhood

 

Is there a link between fitness and academic performance?

Briefly noted:  A Muntaner-Mas et al. J Pediatr 2018; 198: 90-7.  This cross-sectional study with 250 Spanish children  (10-12 year olds) examined obesity measures, physical fitness measures and academic performance.  Key finding: “Children considered fit had better academic performance than their unfit peers…the association between body mass index and GPA was mediated by cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility.”  The design of this study precludes establishing this association as a causal relationship.

Gibbs Gardens

Higher Protein In Infant Formula –Doubling the Risk of Excess Body Fat in 6 year-olds

A recent study (thanks to John Pohl for link from twitter feed) (M Totzauer et al. Obesity 2018; https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22203) indicates that high protein infant formula is associated with an increased risk of obesity.

Full Link: Effect of Lower Versus Higher Protein Content in Infant Formula Through the First Year on Body Composition from 1 to 6 Years: Follow‐Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial

From Abstract:

Methods

In a multicenter, double‐blind European trial, healthy infants (N = 1,090) were randomly assigned to different protein content formulas (upper [HP] and lower [LP] limits of the European Union regulations in 2001) during the first year; breastfed infants (N = 588) were recruited for reference values.

Weight, height, and triceps and subscapular skinfold (SF) thickness were measured repeatedly (N = 650 at 6 years), and body composition was estimated (Slaughter). The 99th percentile of fat mass index reference data were used to assess excess body fat at 6 years.

Results

At 2 and 6 years, the study observed greater sum of SFs (Δ 2 years: 0.5 mm, P = 0.026, Δ 6 years: 0.6 mm, P = 0.045), fat mass index (Δ 2 years: 0.12 kg/m², P = 0.008, Δ 6 years: 0.15 kg/m², P = 0.011), and fat‐free mass index (Δ 2 years: 0.17 kg/m², P = 0.003, Δ 6 years: 0.18 kg/m², P = 0.010) in the HP group compared with the LP group. At 6 years, the HP group had a twofold higher risk than the LP group for excess body fat (adjusted odds ratio: 2.13, P = 0.019).

Conclusions

Infant formula with HP levels induced greater fat mass in children from 2 to 6 years. Lowering the protein content of infant formula may result in a healthier body composition in early childhood.

Amelia Island -Sunrise