A recent provocative study : “Childhood Metabolic Biomarkers Are Associated with Performance on Cognitive Tasks in Young Children” ALB Shapiro et al. J Pediatr 2019; 211: 92-7
Methods: Data were obtained from children (n=137, 4.6 years old on average) participating in the Healthy Start study, a pre-birth cohort in Colorado. This included metabolic markers (HOMA-IR, glucose, insulin) and cognitive performance markers (Flanker task, Dimensional Change Card Sort test (which assesses cognitive flexibility), and Picture Vocabulary test).
- HOMA-IR, glucose, and insulin were all inversely significantly-associated with cognitive flexibility testing. Thus, the authors found that “greater blood biomarkers of poor metabolic health are related to lower cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control in healthy, young children.”
- The authors note that their findings “contribute to the large body of literature in children with overt type 1 and type 2 diabetes that demonstrates consistent and negative effects of poor metabolic health on cognition.”
- The metabolic effects on cognition may be more critical in childhood due to brain maturation as well as potential for longer exposure periods. However, studies from adults indicate that “adults without overt diabetes, the cumulative burden of metabolic conditions (eg. obesity, hyperglycemia) was significantly associated with lower cognitive scores.”
My take: While the effects of metabolic disease on cardiovascular disease is well-recognized, this study adds to the body of knowledge that indicates the potential harm of metabolic disease on the brain as well.
Near Chattahoochee River
Link (YouTube): William Meyers Inaugural Conference Lecture
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CBS News: Study shows declining obesity rate for preschoolers who receive government food aid
The obesity rate for preschoolers who receive government food aid has declined, according to a study released Tuesday in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Obesity rates dropped steadily to about 14% in 2016 — the latest data available — from 16% in 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported.
The improvement affected youngsters ages 2 through 4 who receive food vouchers and other services in the federal Women, Infants and Children nutrition program. About 1 in 5 U.S. kids that age were enrolled in 2016…
My take: This is good news. Hopefully, this report will be one of many indicating that the rates of obesity could actually improve.
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Nature volume 569, pages260–264 (2019) : Full Text: Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
- Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017.
- We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017—and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions—was due to increases in BMI in rural areas.
- In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women.
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This is a bike path from Canmore to Banff. I had a chance to ride an electric bike which was a lot of fun.
A recent study (AR Goetz et al J Pediatr 2018; 201: 27-33) examines the impact of breastfeeding on the growth of infants with high birth weight (HBW).
Background: “Exclusive breastfeeding is protective against high weight and is recommended by” the AAP for the first 6 months. In this study, the authors hypothesized that “HBW infants would receive a lower percentage of breast milk and consume more formula than NBW infants.”
- HBW infants with high weights at 7-12 months of age demonstrated a rapid decline in the percentage of breast milk feedings compared with HBW infants with normal weights at 7-12 months of age.
- Normal birth weight infants with high weights at 7-12 months of age received a lower percentage of breast milk and more formula intake that those with normal weights at 7-12 months of age.
Because HBW is associated with later risk of obesity/overweight, identifying strategies early in life is important. Furthermore, as a recent study in NEJM has shown (M Geserick et al. NEJM 2018; 379: 1303-12), a lot of weight gain issues happen in the first years of life:
- Almost 90% of children who were obese at 3 years of age were overweight or obese in adolescence
- Among obese adolescents, the most rapid weight gain had occurred between 2 and 6 years of age
My take: This study further shows a strong association between consumption of breast milk and normal weights at 7-12 months of age, both in HBW and NBW.
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Near Lake Louise, Banff