Personal item: If any blog follower has experience using biologics (eg mepolizumab, benralizumab) in a young child (1 yo) with eosinophilic colitis and marked eosinophilia, please send me a personal email: email@example.com.
“Another series of studies from the University of Texas found that four seconds — yes, seconds — of ferocious bicycle pedaling, repeated several times, was enough to raise adults’ strength and endurance, whatever their age or health when they started.”
“As I wrote in July, the familiar goal of 10,000 daily steps, deeply embedded in our activity trackers and collective consciousness, has little scientific validity. It is a myth that grew out of a marketing accident, and a study published this summer further debunked it, finding that people who took between 7,000 and 8,000 steps a day, or a little more than three miles, generally lived longer than those strolling less or accumulating more than 10,000 steps.”
“Exercise also has a disproportionate impact on our odds of enjoying a long, healthy life. According to one of the most inspiring studies this year, overweight people who started working out lowered their risk of premature death by about 30 percent even if they remained overweight, with exercise providing about twice as much benefit as weight loss might…Exercise enhances our brain power, too, according to other, memorable experiments from this year”
“In the study, which I wrote about in May, active people reported a stronger sense of purpose in their lives than inactive people….In effect, the more people felt their lives had meaning, the more they wound up moving, and the more they moved, the more meaningful they found their lives.
For successful aging, recognize one’s issues and adapt accordingly. “Sooner or later, we all must recognize what is no longer possible and find alternatives,” says Jane Brody (Personal Health columnist) –“Inspired by Steven Petrow’s book, “Stupid Things I Won’t Do When I Get Old.”
Learning from ‘Super-Agers’ — “past research has revealed lifestyle factors that contribute to resilience such as obtaining a high level of quality education; holding occupations that deal with complex facts and data; consuming a Mediterranean-style diet; engaging in leisure activities; socializing with other people; and exercising regularly”
The sweet spot for longevity lies around 7,000 steps a day (or 30 minutes of exercise).
Only 22% underwent bariatric surgery (Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG)), mainly due to lack of interest in those referred
Reasons for NoLSG: 171 (62% of the NoLSG group) did not return for a 2nd visit, 28 (10%) were considered non-adherent to clinical recommendations, 14 (6%) had insurance denials, 16 (6%) had psychological contraindications including recent suicidal ideations, and 29 (11%) are still considering/pursuing LSG
Only 8 (2.3%) of entire cohort were self-pay
LSG patients had 21% total weight loss and 22% total BMI loss at 24 months whereas NoLSG patients had 4% total weight gain and 3% BMI gain (P < 0.01)
LSG group had improvement in obesity-associated conditions compared to group without surgery (P < 0.01)
Follow-up in both groups was poor (40% for LSG group and <20% for the NoLSG group) 1 year after bariatric referral. This is of particular interest in the LSG group b/c for surgery, patients are required to agree to a 5 year f/u period (though this lacks an enforcement mechanism). The authors note some improvement in f/u coincident with recent broader adoption of telemedine
My take: This single-center found that most patients referred for consideration of bariatric surgery did not have this surgery.
In this study of 153 infants with food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP) with documented blood in the stool, more children with FPIAP developed IgE-Food Allergy (IgE-FA) (11%) compared with healthy children.
Key points (from commentary by MT Kraft and D Stukus):
“Although conventional teaching is to wait until 12 months of age to reintroduce dairy to infants with FPIAP, it can likely be introduced much earlier.”
The diagnosis of FPIAP was associated with with an increased risk of IgE-FA, “although diagnosis was not confirmed through oral food challenges”
My take: Children with FPIAP are more likely to receive a diagnosis of IgE-FA. Prolonged restriction of milk, when no longer required, could contribute to this; in addition, some children are mislabeled as food allergic without appropriate confirmation (based on faulty testing).
Methods: In a 36-month prospective cohort study (n=365), the occurrence of other atopic manifestations (eczema, urticaria, asthma, and rhinoconjunctivitis) and the time of immune tolerance acquisition were comparatively evaluated in children with oral food challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy (CWA). 5 groups were treated with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG (EHCF + LGG), rice hydrolyzed formula, soy formula, extensively hydrolyzed whey formula (EHWF), or amino acid–based formula.
The use of EHCF + LGG for CMA treatment was associated with lower incidence of atopic manifestations and greater rate of immune tolerance acquisition.
The risk ratios:
2.37 (1.46-3.86, P < .001) for rice hydrolyzed formula vs EHCF + LGG
2.62 (1.63-4.22, P < .001) for soy formula vs EHCF + LGG
2.31 (1.42-3.77, P < .001) for EHWF vs EHCF + LGG
3.50 (2.23-5.49, P < .001) for amino acid–based formula vs EHCF + LGG
Limitations: non-blinded study, exclusion of patients with anaphylaxis-CMA
In this randomized trial, infants (n=491 enrolled) in Japan were randomly allocated to ingest at least 10 mL of CMF (cow’s milk formula) daily (ingestion group) or avoid CMF (avoidance group) between 1 and 2 months of age. In the avoidance group breast-feeding was supplemented with soy formula as needed. Oral food challenge was performed at 6 months of age to assess CMA development. Continuous breast-feeding was recommended for both groups until 6 months of age.
There were 2 CMA cases (0.8%) among the 242 members of the CMF ingestion group and 17 CMA cases (6.8%) among the 249 participants in the avoidance group (risk ratio = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.01-0.50; P < .001).
Approximately 70% of the participants in both groups were still being breast-fed at 6 months of age.
My take: This study adds to the growing body of evidence that early introduction of allergenic foods lowers the likelihood of developing food allergies.
Disclaimer: This blog, gutsandgrowth, assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the gutsandgrowth blog cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure. This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.
I am happy to say that this is the last nightcall that I will have this year!
Today, I’ve compiled some of my favorite posts from the past year. I started this blog a little more than 10 years ago. I am grateful for the encouragement/suggestions from many people to help make this blog better. Also, I want to wish everyone a Happy New Year.
Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among healthy children 0-10 years of age participating in The Applied Research Group for Kids study between June 2008 and August 2019 in Toronto, Canada.
Of 8943 children included, the mean (SD) age of infant cereal introduction was 5.7 (2.1) months
Children who were introduced to infant cereal at 4 vs 6 months had 0.17 greater body mass index z score (95% CI 0.06-0.28; P = .002) and greater odds of obesity (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.18-2.80; P = .006) at 10 years of age.
Earlier cereal introduction was associated with a less-favorable eating behavior score at 18 months to 5 years of age (0.18 units higher; 95% CI 0.07-0.29; P = .001).
Limitation: This study did not randomize children into early vs late cereal introduction; thus, there may be unidentified confounders that contribute to weight gain in children offered cereal at a younger age.
My take: This study indicates that introduction of cereal at 6 months of age, rather than 4 months of age, may be beneficial in limiting excess weight gain.
Patrick Reeves passed along the following helpful information about the NASPGHAN toolbox:
The NASPGHAN Fellows committee, working in close partnership with the NASPGHAN Technology and Training committees, has developed an App named, “The NASPGHAN Toolbox”.
The App is equipped with ready access to: clinical calculators, guidelines and algorithms, medication guides, patient education resources, and more. You can access the Toolbox via its URL (https://toolbox.naspghan.org/) on your phone or computer.
The NASPGHAN team hopes this will enhance your day-to-day patient care of children with gastrointestinal disorders.
Key points from this review of more than 200 relevant meta-analyses and individual studies:
“A weight-neutral approach to treating obesity-related health conditions may be as, or more, effective than a weight-loss-centered approach, and could avoid pitfalls associated with repeated weight loss failure… Epidemiological studies show that CRF (cardiorespiratory fitness) and PA (physical activity) significantly attenuate, and sometimes eliminate, the increased mortality risk associated with obesity. More importantly, increasing PA or CRF is consistently associated with greater reduction in risk of all-cause and CVD mortality than intentional weight loss.”
“The increased prevalence of weight loss attempts in the United States has coincided with the increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, a weight-centric approach to obesity treatment and prevention has been largely ineffective. It is unlikely that continued focus on weight loss as the primary metric for success will reverse the trends in obesity prevalence or result in sustainable weight loss. In fact, chronic weight cycling is the norm for millions of adults and is likely to remain so for as long as weight loss persists as the cornerstone of obesity treatment. Weight cycling is associated with health risks that are very similar to those associated with obesity, including higher all-cause mortality risk, and may contribute to weight gain.”
CHOA Nutrition Support Core Seminar -Thanks to Kipp Ellsworth for organizing this series and sharing content. This lecture is a really good review and would be a great place to start when discussing formulas with medical students and residents.
This lecture reviewed selection of formulas for infants, children and adolescents; some of the most common formula choices (but not all) were reviewed
This talk reviewed reflux guidelines as reflux symptoms often impact decisions on formula choice in infancy. Thickened formulas like Enfamil AR and Similac Spit Up do not work with acid suppression medications.
WIC script requires 2 ICD-10 diagnosis which are relevant to chosen formula
For standard formula, no prescription is needed; if formula is not on WIC formulary, it will not be covered
If child is NPO, write for “patient is NPO, please give maximum formula”
For cholestatic liver disease: high MCT formulas include pregestamil (55%), Alimentum (33%) and elemental formulas (33-49%)
For chylous effusions, very high MCT formulas (83%, 84%) include enfaport and monogen (needs EFA supplementation)
Formulas for children and adolescents come in concentrations of 0.6 kcal/mL to 2.0 kcal/mL
Reduced calorie formulas (eg. Pediasure Reduced Calorie or Compleat Pediatric Reduced Calorie) are helpful to provide adequate micronutrients/protein in children with hypocaloric needs
Blenderized formulas often helpful for children with retching (when given via gastric route); some of these may increase vitamin A levels and beta-carotene (eg. Nourish, Compleat Pediatric Organic Blends). Real food blends are not nutritionally-complete. Harvest is able to run through enteral tube without dilution.
For those older than 10 years of age, Liquid Hope is similar to Nourish and Compleat Organic Blends is similar to Compleat Pediatric Organic Blends
Low electrolyte formulas, like Renalcal and Renastart, may be useful for children with kidney dysfunction. Corresponding formulas for >10 years of age include Suplena and Novasource Renal
Kate Farms is often a good choice for patients with multiple allergies or eosinophilic esophagitis