Fecal Microbioata Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile — Position Paper

A recent position paper (ZH Davidovics et al. JPGN 2019; 68: 130-43) from NASPGHAN/ESPGHAN on Fecal Microbioata Transplantation (FMT) for Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) provides a pretty good review. Though, I think a summary table of recommendations would have made this publication much more helpful.

Here is a full-text link: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection and Other Conditions in Children: A Joint Position Paper

A couple key points/excerpts:

In general, we concur with current adult guidelines  when considering FMT for the treatment of rCDI in children and propose FMT be considered in children with one of the following:
1. rCDI (recurrence of symptoms within 8 weeks of treatment for CDI) (either a or b)
a. At least 3 episodes of mild to moderate CDI and failure of a 6- to 8-week taper with vancomycin with or without an alternative antibiotic (eg, rifaximin, nitazoxanide).
b. At least 2 episodes of severe CDI resulting in hospitalization and associated with significant morbidity.

2. Moderate CDI not responding to standard therapy (including vancomycin) for at least 1 week. We recommend caution, however, in such cases, with repeated testing for etiologies other than CDI such as IBD.

3. Severe CDI or fulminant C difficile colitis with no response to standard therapy after 48 hours.

My take:  I think the IDSA 2017 guidelines are more useful: Clostridium difficile Guidelines (2017 IDSA/SHEA)

More related blog posts:

Clostridium difficile Infection in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Expert Updates

A recent clinical practice update (S Khanna et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2017; 15: 166-74) provides some succinct recommendations regarding Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

Background: In 2011, the authors note that CDI was associated with 29,000 deaths and is now the most lethal enteric pathogen in the U.S.

Differences in pathogenesis of C diff in IBD compared to those without IBD:

  • Younger age
  • Less frequent antibiotic exposure
  • More often community onset (rather than hospital onset)
  • Higher recurrence (may be related to dysbiosis)

Key recommendations:

  • In patients with IBD flare, test for CDI
  • In patients with CDI and IBD, clinicians should consider “using vancomycin instead of metronidazole.”
  • In patients with recurrent CDI and IBD, consider fecal microbiota transplantation

Figure 4 proposes a management algorithm (for adults).  If uncomplicated CDI, recommended dose of vancomycin was 125 mg q6h. If no improvement in 3-4 days, then “consider escalation of immunosuppression.” For complicated CDI, consider oral vancomycin at 500 mg q6h and IV metronidazole 500 mg q8.  In addition, consider rectal vancomycin and surgery consult.

Complicated CDI includes ICU admission, hypotension, T >38.5, ileus/megacolon, mental status changes, leukocyte count >35,000  or < 2000, or lactate >2.2 mmol/L

Another review article (Y Chen et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2017; 23: 200-07) is a meta-analysis that identified six studies.  One of these studies was a case-control study with nearly 400,000 patients (and about 7000 cases of C diff). Key finding: CDI results in nearly a doubling of the risk of colectomy (OR 1.90), mainly in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Related blog posts

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

 

4 Points for C diff in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

A nice review: K Rao, PDR Higgins. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2016; 22: 1744-54.

Many aspects of Clostridium difficile with and without coexisting inflammatory bowel disease has been reviewed on this blog.  This review adds a few additional points:

  1. C difficile testing in patients with IBD, “start with enzyme immunoassay-based tests with a reflex to PCR test for discordant enzyme immunoassay results.”  Rationale: “PCR is quite sensitive for the presence of toxigenic C difficile, it may increase the detection of asymptomatic colonization and shedding.”
  2. Don’t test for C difficile in patients in clinical remission. “Clayton et al evaluated outpatients with IBD who were in clinical remission and had no recent exposure to antimicrobials, corticosteroids, immunomodulatory agents, or hospitalizations.  These patients had toxigenic C difficile carriage rates of 8.2%.”
  3. What to do when IBD patients test positive for C difficile infection (CDI) -treat which one or both? The authors recommend, that “if there is no response to the treatment for CDI after 48 hours, then concurrent immunologic therapy can be started/escalated.”
  4. Safety of FMT with IBD. “There may be additional risk incurred in the IBD population…[in a recent study] 14% of the subgroup of patients with IBD experienced adverse events including IBD flare, requiring hospitalization in some instances.” Overall, there is not enough data to “risk stratify patients in terms of these adverse outcomes.”

In addition to these pointers, advice on treatment based on severity and whether CDI is recurrent is listed on Table 1.

  • For primary CDI (nonsevere): metronidazole, vancomycin or fidaxomicin.
  • For primary CDI (severe): vancomycin or fidaxomicin.
  • For primary CDI (severe & complicated*): vancomycin at highest dose and IV metronidazole and (if ileus present) vancomycin rectally
  • Recurrent CDI: 1st recurrence — same as initial Rx, 2nd recurrence -same as initial Rx, then use either vancomycin pulsed and/or tapered regimen of 6 or more weeks

Related blog posts:

View from Grinnell Glacier Trail, Glacier Nat'l Park

View from Grinnell Glacier Trail, Glacier Nat’l Park

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

Keeping Up with Clostridium Difficile

It is difficult to keep up with all of the relevant publications regarding Clostridium difficile–there are so many.  This likely reflects its emergence as a frequent and important pathogen.

Recent references:

  1. Sandberg KC et al. “Disproportionate Rise in Clostridium difficile Associated Hospitalizations Among US Youth with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 19978-2011.” JPGN 2015; 60: 486-92 (editorial 421-22).
  2. Leffler DA, Lamont JT. NEJM 2015; 372: 1539-48.

In the first study, the researchers note that there has been a 5-fold increase in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) hospitalizations with concomitant Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).  Whereas, the hospitalization without CDI increased 2-fold.  Associated with this 5-fold increase in hospitalizations, there were increased costs and longer length of stays.  Interestingly, IBD patients with CDI had a  lower likelihood (OR 0.31) of colectomy in this study. This epidemiology yields more questions than answers.  Certainly, a significant fraction of this increase is due to the use of more sensitive PCR-based assay. In addition, many of these patients may not be symptomatic due to CDI; it can be difficult to determine if IBD symptoms are due to IBD or due to CDI. Even treatment with antibiotics like vancomycin does not fully differentiate as the response could be nonspecific.

In the second review, severe useful points were made.

Risk factors:

  • Antibiotics –this remains most important risk factor
  • Older age (especially if >65 years)
  • Possible acid suppression -not confirmed in some studies when adjusting for coexisting conditions
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Immunosuppression
  • Chronic kidney disease

Diagnosis:

  • Use of DNA assays has allowed for detection of “low levels of toxigenic organisms of uncertain clinical significance.”  Thus, these assays may detect clinically-insignificant infections.
  • Endoscopy is rarely needed, but sometimes helpful in ovelapping conditions like coexistent CDI from IBD
  • Negative PCR assay has a negative predictive value of “more than 95% in average-risk groups.”
  • Testing and treating persons with solid stools is not recommended

Prevention:

  • Probiotics “have an uncertain effect on the prevention of C difficile infection, and their routine use for the prevention or treatment of active infection is not recommended.”  The authors note that initial favorable studies of antibiotic-associated diarrhea were underpowered and that more recent studies have shown mixed results.  In studies of patients with unusually high rates of CDI, probiotics were shown to confer benefit.

Treatment:

  • Metronidazole and vancomycin remain 1st line treatments.
  • Fidaxomicin use has been limited due to expense, but has been shown to reduce recurrence of CDI in those who do not have the b1/NAP1/027 strain.
  • Alternative antimicrobials, including rifaximin, nitazoxanide and others, are “not recommended except in cases of unacceptable adverse effects.”
  • For recurrent infection, 1st line approach is retreatment with either metronidazole & vancomycin. Second recurrences are often treated with fidaxomicin or tapered vancomycin course.
  • Fecal microbial transplantation –noted to be highly effective and safe as salvage therapy. The precise components that are important are uncertain; however, “the phyla Bactteroidetes and Firmicutes are thought to comprise critical components.”  “More work is neede to understand the possible role for fecal microbial transplantation for primary CDI”

Bottomline: CDI remains an important pathogen and significantly complicates the management of IBD.

Related blog posts:

NASPGHAN Postgraduate Course 2014 -Liver Module

This blog entry has abbreviated/summarized the presentations. Though not intentional, some important material is likely to have been omitted; in addition, transcription errors are possible as well.  I’ve attached the course syllabus as well:

PG Course Syllabus – FINAL

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis –Dennis Black (Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital)

  • Up-to-date review provided
  • GWAS (genome-wide association study) identified 16 significant risk loci which account for only 7.3% of overall risk; environmental influences need to be worked out
  • Pediatric studies –total of 328 patients reported to date

Is pediatric disease the same disease as in adults?

  • Incidence in pediatrics: 0.23/100,000 incidence vs 1.1/100,000 in adults
  • Mean age at diagnosis 13 years in pediatrics.
  • 30% of pediatric patients have overlap with autoimmune hepatitis which is higher than in adult patients.

Other pointers:

  •  Discussed “Autoimmune cholangitis.” Imaging needed in autoimmune hepatitis to look for primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • IBD Association with PSC: IBD occurs in about 55% of PSC patients. If PSC diagnosed first, usually with right-sided colitis.  If IBD diagnosed first, than pancolitis is more commonly noted.
  • Add IgG4 as part of workup to rule out IgG4 cholangiopathy (sensitive to immunosuppression).

Treatment:

  • Supportive care for cholestasis (vitamins, pruritus management, etc
  • Monitoring for complications (rare cases of cholangiocarcinoma in pediatric population).  14 drugs tested to date –mainly in adults.  “All without proven positive impact on long-term outcome.”
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid –widely used but controversial because higher doses associated with worsened outcomes in adult study (Lindor et al).  Ongoing study in pediatric population with ursodeoxycholic acid.
  • Vancomycin (Aliment Pharm 37: 2013; 604.  Adults n=35). Both Flagyl and Vanc seemed to be helpful. Uncontrolled pediatric studies with vancomycin reviewed. Vancomycin study in the works for pediatric/adults.
  • No prospective randomized controlled trials in children and very little data in adults. Hard endpoints –very difficult in children/not practical in children (eg. portal hypertension, transplant, death).

PSC and Transplantation: PSC 2.6% of total transplants –long-term outcome is similar.

Related Blog Posts:

The Jaundiced Infant –Saul Karpen (Emory)

  •  “We don’t estimate jaundice very well… Our eyes do an awful job.”
  • Breastmilk Jaundice: Archives of Disease in Childhood 1978; 53: 506-16.  Only 12 of 853 had jaundice beyond 3 weeks of life.
  • Cholestasis. One of the best studies looking at etiology was recently published:  Hoerning A, et al Front Pediatr. 2014; 2: 65. N=82.  Only 1 patient had CMV.  41% had biliary atresia.

Biliary atresia (BA):

  • Reviewed study indicating that liver biopsy was most accurate means of making diagnosis of biliary atresia (blog comment: this study result may not be accurate in all settings as the interpretation relies on the ability/reliability of pathologist).  High utility of stool pigment & ultrasound (including flow).
  • In retrospective study (Pediatrics 2011; 128 e1428-33), all the BA patients had elevated direct bilirubin by 24-48 hrs of life.
  • Genetic panels and whole exome sequencing (~$4-7K) are happening now. Cost-effective.

Take-home message: Molecular understanding possible for conjugated/unconjugated hyperbilirubinemias. Direct bilirubin >1 is abnormal

Related blog posts:

Acute Liver Failure –Estella Alonso (Children’s Hospital of Chicago) (pg 43)

Points:

  • Few patients receive a full diagnostic workup (J Pediatr 2009;155:801‐6)–especially with regard to metabolic and autoimmune disorders.
  • Reviewed etiologies –most frequently “indeterminant” especially in younger patients.  Acetaminophen is most frequent etiology in teenagers and adults.
  • Systemic inflammation is common in acute liver failure (Bucuvalas, J JPGN 2013;56: 311–315). Soluble IL2 receptor alpha –significantly higher in patients that died.  Immune regulation important aspect regarding survival. Should steroids be used in cases with high inflammation?

Prognosis: Squires et al. J Pediatr 2006;148:652-8, Lee et al. JPGN 2005;40:575-81, Baliga et al. Liver Transpl 2004;10:1364-71

  • 33% ‐53% survival with native liver
  • 61% survival including LT
  • 70%‐80% after LT
  • Multiorgan failure is most common etiology of death. Bleeding is “a rare cause of mortality.”

Management:

  • Reviewed including coagulopathy/bleeding, cardiovascular collapse, hepatic encephalopathy/cerebral edema
  • Pediatric N-acetylcysteine Trial Squires, et al Hepatology 2013;57:1542‐9 N=182.  Patients with NAC seemed to do worse, but not statistically proven.  This study has stopped the widespread use of NAC in acute liver failure.
  • Discussed approach to neurological complications in ALF. Hussain et al, JPGN 2014;58:449‐56. Retrospective study (n=18). Early EEGs obtained. Hypertonic saline may be more effective than mannitol.  Hypothermia may be helpful adjunct.
  • Timing of Transplantation discussed (pg 54 in syllabus). Difficult to predict spontaneous survival.

Related blog posts:

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications/diets (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician/nutritionist.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

This Year's Pumpkin

This Year’s Pumpkin

A C difficile two-fer

Two recent review articles on Clostridium difficile are quite useful:

  • Mezoff EA, Cohen MB. J Pediatr 2013; 163: 627-30.
  • Dupont HL. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013; 11: 1216-23.

The first publication reviews acid suppression and the risk of C difficile infection (CDI).  It starts off with  a terrific piece of advice from Sir William Osler: “One of the first duties of the physician is to educate the masses not to take medicine.”  The authors note that pH above 4 has been shown to increase bacterial survival, including  C perfringe spores in a mouse model.  In addition, the article notes that there have been concerns as early as 1982 that acid suppression could be a risk factor for CDI.  Several recent studies were summarized, including the following:

  • A recent meta-analysis (Kwok CS et al. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 1011-9) with 42 studies (N= 313,000 patients) “found an association between PPI use and risk of CDI (OR1.74, 05%CI 1.47-2.85).”
  • A review of the literature (Deshpande A et. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012; 10: 225-33) between 1990-2010 found an overall increase in CDI risk with PPIs to be OR 2.15 (95% CI 1.81-2.55). No prospective studies were identified.
  • In pediatrics, a study (Turco et al. Alimentary Pharmacol Therapeut 2010; 31: 754-9) with 910 children admitted for abdominal pain and diarrhea identified 68 with CDI.  Compared with control patients, use of PPIs was significantly higher in CDI patients (OR 4.52, 95% CI 1.4-14.4).

The FDA has stated that PPIs may be associated with an increased risk of CDI.  In addition, the use of antibiotics “appear to act synergistically with PPIs.”  Thus, the authors recommend stopping PPIs in those who do not need them.  Periodic ‘holidays’ or dosing step-downs may help assess continued need for PPIs.

The second publication succinctly reviews the diagnosis and management of CDI.  The various diagnostic methods are compared in Table 1.  Therapeutic options for 1st time infection are reviewed in Table 2.  For adults with mild-to-moderate infections, metronidazole (500 mg TID for 10 days) is preferred.  Vancomycin or Fidaxomicin are recommended for more severe infections.

Table 3 lists treatment options for recurrent CDI.  Repeat course of any of the 1st round treatments can be considered depending on patient’s illness severity.  In addition, other potential treatments included the following:

  • vancomycin tapered dose (week 1: 125 mg 4 times/day, week 2: 125 mg 2 times/day, week 3: 125 mg once/day, week 4: 125 mg every other day, week 5 & 6: 125 mg every third day)
  • rifaximin (550 mg BID x 20 days)
  • high-dose vancomycin (250-500 mg 4 times/day for 10 days) followed by S boulardii (2 capsules BID for 28 d)
  • fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) –“although family member stool donors have been used, the current movement is toward volunteer donor pools.”  [I do not think ‘current movement’ was intended as a pun by the authors.]  Volunteer donors could lower the screening costs.
  • intravenous immunoglobulin (small clinical trials have failed to show efficacy)
  • monoclonal antibodies to toxins A/B

Related blog posts:

What’s the best medical therapy for Clostridium difficile?

More data on the superiority of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin in adult patients has been published (Lancet 2012; 12: 281-9).  While this study was a ‘double-blind, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial,’ the data tilt in favor of fidaxomicin.  This study enrolled 535 patients from 45 sites in Europe and 41 sites in U.S.

On an intention-to-treat basis, a clinical cure was noted in 88% of fidaxomicin group (200 mg BID x 10 days) and 86% of vancomycin group (125 mg QID x 10 days).  Clinical cure was defined as resolution of diarrhea and no need for further treatment.  The big difference was in recurrence risk:  13% of patients receiving fidaxomicin compared with 27% of patients receiving vancomycin.  Recurrence was defined as development of three unformed bowel movements in 24 h, a positive stool toxin, and need for retreatment within 30 days of treatment completion.  A sustained response (=”global cure”) was noted in 77% with fidaxomicin compared with 63% of vancomycin group.

Both groups of patients had similar variables: severity of illness, frequency of B1/027 strains, geographic distribution, concomitant antibiotics, previous C difficile infection, age, and inpatient status.  In the group with concomitant antibiotics, fidaxomicin outperformed vancomycin with respect to cure rate: 90% versus 73%.  Adverse reactions were similar as well (Table 7).

To underscore the severity of C difficile in this population, there was a significant mortality rate in both groups.  8% of patients receiving at least one dose of fidaxomicin died compared with 7% of vancomycin-treated patients.

Why does fidaxomicin have a lower recurrence rate?  Probably due to a more narrow antibiotic spectrum and minimal effect on commensal gut flora.  Fidaxomicin also has roughly eight times more potency in vitro than vancomycin against clinical isolates of C difficile.

Previous related blog entries/reference: