Secondary Prophylaxis of Clostridiodes difficile Infection

H Bao et al. Pediatrics 2021; 148: e2020031807. Oral Vancomycin as Secondary Prophylaxis for Clostridioides difficile Infection. Thanks to Ben Gold for sharing this reference.

Methods: A multicampus, retrospective cohort evaluation was conducted among patients aged ≤18 years with any history of clinical CDI and receiving systemic antibiotics in a subsequent encounter from 2013–2019. This study identified 30 and 44 patients received oral vancomycin prophylaxis (OVP) and no OVP, respectively. Eligible patients had to be >12 months of age and having at 3 unformed stools everyday.

OVP dosing: “vancomycin doses of 10 mg/kg (up to 125 mg per dose) every 12 hours during concomitant antibiotic use. OVP duration was intended to continue while on systemic antimicrobial agents and for 5 days after completion of antimicrobial agents (extended prophylaxis tail), but practice varied, and duration was ultimately left to the discretion of the provider.”

Key finding:

The incidence of CDI recurrence within 8 weeks of antibiotic exposure was significantly lower in patients who received OVP (3% vs 25%P = .02) despite this group having notably more risk factors for recurrence.   After adjustment in a multivariable analysis, secondary OVP was associated with less risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.01–0.86; P = .04).

This study is in agreement with studies in adults (Brown CC, et al. Oral Vancomycin for Secondary Prophylaxis of Clostridium difficile Infection. Ann Pharmacother. 2019 Apr;53(4):396-401). In this review, the authors state: “Variable dosing regimens and lack of safety data are limitations.. clinicians can consider vancomycin 125 mg orally once or twice daily in high-risk patients receiving broad-spectrum antibacterial agents.”

My take: In patients at high risk of recurrent CDI, OVP should be considered as secondary prophylaxis when receiving systemic antibiotics.

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ACG Clostridium Difficile Guidelines Plus One

CR Kelly et al. Am J Gastroenterol 2021;00:1–24. https://doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000001278; published online May 18, 2021. Full text PDF: ACG Clinical Guidelines: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infections

Key points:

  • Guideline recommends AGAINST using probiotics for prevention of C difficile infection (CDI)
  • Guideline cautions AGAINST testing individuals at low risk for CDI (eg. not having diarrhea)
  • Guideline recommends either vancomycin or fidaxomicin (lower CDI recurrence) for all cases of CDI and consideration of metronidazole for nonsevere cases. Fidaxomicin is recommended for CDI recurrence after vancomycin or metronidazole.
  • Guideline recommends combination of highly sensitive test and highly specific test for diagnosis of CDI. “CDI-related complications are rare in NAAT-positive, toxin EIA-negative patients, who, even when untreated, may have clinical courses similar to those without CDI…If both are positive, the diagnosis of CDI can be made reliably. If both are negative, CDI is unlikely. Discordant results when NAAT or GDH is positive and toxin EIA is negative require clinical evaluation and consideration of the possibility of colonization or that the patient has CDI but toxin levels are below the limits of detection (see below).

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Also, I recommend this article in the NY Times about a liver/intestinal transplant surgeon (who has taken care of some of our patients): ‘I Had Never Faced the Reality of Death’: A Surgeon Becomes a Patient

#NASPGHAN 17 More Abstracts

This link for the NASPGHAN abstracts :NASPGHAN 2017 Scientific Abstracts

The following slides are from some of the abstract posters. This first poster (next 5 pics) showed that symptom association with meals is not predictive of aspiration among a selected group of children who underwent swallow study evaluations. In the figures, the blue bars are children who passed the swallow study whereas the red bars indicate the children who failed the swallow study.

This next slide demonstrated that a six food diet for EoE could be administered blenderized via a gastrostomy tube.

The next slide showed that irritable bowel syndrome was more frequent (overall hazard ratio of 1.52) following a urinary tract infection in the first year of life.

The next pictures are from a poster discussing high rates of recurrent C difficile infection following fecal microbial transplantation in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (mainly ulcerative colitis).  An inference from this study would be that many cases of C difficile that were attributed as causing symptoms could in fact have been from a flare up of their IBD.  More details about the diagnosis of C difficile (based on PCR or ELISA) would be helpful

The next poster provides data from CHOP experience with Ustekinumab.  Overall, in this highly-selected (refrcactory) population the long term improvement was low; while one-third had steroid-free remission at week 8, this was not maintained at week 16 and week 24.  In addition, among the 22 patients, one developed transverse myelitis.

This study that follows (next two pics) documented the relative safety of liver biopsies (mainly percutaneous without interventional radiology) in the post-transplant period.  The two most serious adverse events, cholangitis and bile leak, helped identify biliary strictures.

The following collaborative study examined the neurocognitive status of children with Alagille syndrome.  Overall, this study shows that children with Alagille syndrome are at increased risk of low IQ compared to children with other cholestatic diseases.

 

 

Predicting Severe Clostridium Difficile

According to a recent publication (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013; 11: 1466-71), the most important risk factors for severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are the following:

  • Peripheral leukocytosis (WBC >15,000)
  • Elevated serum creatinine >1.5 times baseline
  • Narcotic use
  • Acid-blocking medications
  • Older age

This study reviewed the records of inpatient cases at the Mayo clinic between 2007-2010. In total, 487 of 1446 patients had severe CDI, defined as ICU admssion (26.7%), colectomy (2.7%) or death (8.9%) within 30 days of diagnosis.

Patients with these risk factors may need to be treated more aggressively.

Also, noted: Am J Gastroenterol 2013; 108: 1794-1801. (Thanks to Ben Gold). Using electronic medical records, the authors identified 894  adult inpatients with a first-time CDI (2009-2012).  Receipt of PPIs concurrent with CDI treatment was not associated with CDI recurrence.

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