More Details on Drug-Resistant E coli Transmitted by Fecal Microbiota Transplant

In June 2019, the FDA delivered a warning about the potential danger of transmitting drug-resistant E coli with fecal microbiota tranplantaion (FMT).  (FDA Warning for FMT)

A report on this issue has now been published: Z DeFilipp et al. NEJM 381: 2043-50, editorial M Blaser pgs 264-6.

The authors describe two patients, a 69 year-old with cirrhosis and a 73 year-old sp stem cell transplantation, who developed bacteremia due to transmission of a drug-resistant (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL]) E coli following FMT which was delivered by oral capsules. The latter patient died from sepsis. The two patients had a genomicly-identical strain isolated that was also found in the donated aliquot.

In the commentary, a couple of important points:

  • “Up to now, the complications have been infrequent [from FMT], and for recurrent C difficile infection, the benefits of FMT clearly outweigh the risks; however, as the use of FMT is broadened and more compromised patients are treated, complications may be more frequently observed.”
  • “In the short term, improved and uniform screening of FMT material is needed to reduce the risks.”

My take: Both of these patients who became developed bacteremia were at risk for more severe infections.  However, we need to remain aware that severe complications can and do occur with FMT.  In context, though, there are risks of severe complications from routine use of antibiotics as well.

Frontenac Hotel, Quebec City

Only 3% Make It Through the Donor Screening Process for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

A recent letter (Z Kassam et al. NEJM 2019; 381: 2070-2) describes the arduous process involved in being selected as a stool donor for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

In a previous blog (2015), it appeared that 17% of donors were accepted for FMT: Rejected! Most Stool is Not Good Enough for FMT This current review of the donor program from a stool bank (OpenBiome) prospectively evaluated 15,317 donor candidates from 2014-2018.

Key finding:

  • Only 3% (n=386) made it through all the steps to become donors

Reasons for exclusion:

Stage 1: common reasons for exclusion:

  • geographical -living too far away to donate regularly
  • BMI >30
  • social history
  • travel history
  • not in age range

Stage 2: “failing” the 200-item clinical assessment –common reasons for exclusion:

  • lost to followup
  • allergic disorders/asthma
  • receiving medications/supplements
  • mental health concerns
  • infectious disease history
  • social history/sexual history/other reasons

Stage 3: “failing” the stool and nasal screening which included (in 2016) carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriacea (CRE), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms (ESBL) and MRSA. –common reasons for exclusion:

  • lost to followup
  • infectious disorders (including C diff in 7 patients)

Stage 4: “failing” serological screening

  • lost to followup
  • abnormal LFTs, CBC or infection

Related blog posts:

Island Ford, Sandy Springs, GA

#NASPGHAN19 Postgraduate Course (Part 2)

Here are some selected slides and notes from this year’s NASPGHAN’s postrgraduate course. My notes from these lectures may contain errors of omission or transcription.

Link to the full NASPGHAN PG Syllabus 2019 (Borrowed with permission)

9:00 – 10:20 “Potpourri”

46 Alessio Fasano, MD, MassGeneral Hospital for Children  Celiac disease: Beyond diagnosis

  • Reviewed potential non-biopsy option for diagnosis if anti-TG2 >10 x normal. Pediatricians are not following recommendations –>many children placed on gluten-free diet at lower titer antibody-positivity.
  • Recommends checking Hepatitis B antibody because many children with celiac disease do not seroconvert.
  • TTG levels are good for diagnosis but not as helpful for monitoring after diagnosis.
  • Only 10 out of 1000 are true refractory, about 100 out of 1000 are exquisitely sensitive to gluten

56 Meghana Sathe, MD, UT Southwestern Medical Center The role of the gastroenterologist and hepatologist in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) care today

  • Fecal elastase monitoring useful for determining need for PERT.
  • Discussed CF liver involvement.  Multilobular cirrhosis, 7% of individuals, is most important liver disease in CF.
  • Modulator therapy can elevate liver enzymes and may need to hold if ALT >5 ULN or lower elevation if elevated bilirubin (see Stop Rules -Practical Advice on DILI)
  • DIOS -for partial obstruction, polyethylene glycol and/or gastrogastrin enemas could be used.
  • Consider treatment of SBBO as well which is frequent with CF.

67 Sonia Michail, MD, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles Update on C. difficile

The slide I liked the best was showing a change in microbiome after FMT which is not in syllabus.

82 Ed Hoffenberg, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado  What the pediatric GI provider needs to know about cannabis

Disclaimer: NASPGHAN/gutsandgrowth assumes no responsibility for any use or operation of any method, product, instruction, concept or idea contained in the material herein or for any injury or damage to persons or property (whether products liability, negligence or otherwise) resulting from such use or operation. The discussion, views, and recommendations as to medical procedures, choice of drugs and drug dosages herein are the sole responsibility of the authors. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, the Society cautions that independent verification should be made of diagnosis and drug dosages. The reader is solely responsible for the conduct of any suggested test or procedure. Some of the slides reproduced in this syllabus contain animation in the power point version. This cannot be seen in the printed version.

Large Study Shows FMT Efficacy/Safety in Children

Clinical Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019. In press: Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile Infection in Children Thanks to Ben Gold for this reference.

Abstract

Background & Aims

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is commonly used to treat Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI is an increasing cause of diarrheal illness in pediatric patients, but the effects of FMT have not been well studied in children. We performed a multi-center retrospective cohort study of pediatric and young adult patients to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and factors associated with a successful FMT for the treatment of CDI.

Methods

We performed a retrospective study of 372 patients, 11 months to 23 years old, who underwent FMTs at 18 pediatric centers, from February 1, 2004 to February 28, 2017; 2-month outcome data were available from 335 patients. Successful FMT was defined as no recurrence of CDI in the 2 months following FMT. We performed stepwise logistic regression to identify factors associated with successful FMT.

Results

Of 335 patients who underwent FMT and were followed for 2 months or more, 271 (81%) had a successful outcome following a single FMT and 86.6% had a successful outcome following a first or repeated FMT. Patients who received FMT with fresh donor stool (odds ratio [OR], 2.66; 95% CI, 1.39–5.08), underwent FMT via colonoscopy (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.26–4.61), did not have a feeding tube (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.05–4.11), or had 1 less episode of CDI before FMT (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04–1.39) had increased odds for successful FMT. Seventeen patients (4.7%) had a severe adverse event during the 3-month follow-up period, including 10 hospitalizations.

Conclusion

Based on the findings from a large multi-center retrospective cohort, FMT is effective and safe for the treatment of CDI in children and young adults. Further studies are required to optimize the timing and method of FMT for pediatric patients—factors associated with success differ from those of adult patients.

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Park Guell, Barcelona

Clostridium difficile and Cannabis

Briefly noted:

W El-Matary et al. J Pediatr 2019; 206: 20-5.  This study from Manitoba using electronic database found that the incidence rate of C difficile was stable from 2005-2015, with an overall rate of 7.8 per 100,000 person-years.  Children with Hirschsprung’s and inflammatory bowel disease had increased prevalence rates.

JL O’Loughlin et al. J Pediatr 2019; 206: 142-7. Using data from two longitudinal studies in Montreal (Cannabis is legal for adults in Canada since 2018), the authors examined the rate of cannabis initiation starting in 6th grade through 11th grade. Key finding was that cannabis use was 1.8 time more likely among children whose parents used cannabis.  Overall, cannabis use increased from 3.1% in grade 6 to 25.7% in grade 11.

What is erythromelagia?  This term was noted in the title of a recent report (J Pediatr 2019; 206: 217-24) and refers to bilateral episodic pain and redness that occurs in feet, hands and occasionally the ears.  In some case, symptoms progress proximally to involve the legs, arms, and rarely the face.

 

NY Times: The Battle Over Fecal Transplantation

NY Times: Drug Companies and Doctors Battle Over the Future of Fecal Transplants

This article highlights a concern that pharmaceutical companies may persuade the FDA to regulate fecal transplants similar to medications.  This will exponentially increase the cost and limit the access to beneficial human excrement. Thanks to one of my sons for pointing out this commentary to me.

An excerpt:

As pharmaceutical companies seek to profit from the curative wonders of human feces, doctors worry about new regulations, higher prices and patients attempting DIY cures…

The clash is over the future of fecal microbiota transplants, or F.M.T., a revolutionary treatment that has proved remarkably effective in treating Clostridioides difficile, a debilitating bacterial infection that strikes 500,000 Americans a year and kills 30,000…

At the heart of the controversy is a question of classification: Are the fecal microbiota that cure C. diff a drug, or are they more akin to organs, tissues and blood products that are transferred from the healthy to treat the sick? The answer will determine how the Food and Drug Administration regulates the procedure, how much it costs and who gets to profit…

Human feces, it turns out, are a potential gold mine, for both medical researchers and drug makers…

Inspired by the success of fecal transplants for C. diff, scientists are racing to develop similar treatments for an array of ailments and disorders, among them obesityautismulcerative colitis, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases…

For now, most of the material used in fecal transplants comes from OpenBiome, the public stool bank in Cambridge …The material comes from donors who earn $40 a pop and must pass intensive screenings and regular medical checkups. “It’s harder to become a stool donor than it is to get into M.I.T.,” said Carolyn Edelstein, who runs the organization…The F.D.A. has ramped up oversight of OpenBiome’s production, leading to more rigorous testing and higher prices, which will double to $1,600 this month.

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From NY Times Twitter Feed

Fecal Microbioata Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile — Position Paper

A recent position paper (ZH Davidovics et al. JPGN 2019; 68: 130-43) from NASPGHAN/ESPGHAN on Fecal Microbioata Transplantation (FMT) for Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) provides a pretty good review. Though, I think a summary table of recommendations would have made this publication much more helpful.

Here is a full-text link: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection and Other Conditions in Children: A Joint Position Paper

A couple key points/excerpts:

In general, we concur with current adult guidelines  when considering FMT for the treatment of rCDI in children and propose FMT be considered in children with one of the following:
1. rCDI (recurrence of symptoms within 8 weeks of treatment for CDI) (either a or b)
a. At least 3 episodes of mild to moderate CDI and failure of a 6- to 8-week taper with vancomycin with or without an alternative antibiotic (eg, rifaximin, nitazoxanide).
b. At least 2 episodes of severe CDI resulting in hospitalization and associated with significant morbidity.

2. Moderate CDI not responding to standard therapy (including vancomycin) for at least 1 week. We recommend caution, however, in such cases, with repeated testing for etiologies other than CDI such as IBD.

3. Severe CDI or fulminant C difficile colitis with no response to standard therapy after 48 hours.

My take:  I think the IDSA 2017 guidelines are more useful: Clostridium difficile Guidelines (2017 IDSA/SHEA)

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