Two recent JPGN articles from the same researchers highlight changes in presentation and deficits of knowledge with celiac disease (CD). Interestingly, the authors chose to spell celiac disease differently in the two articles.
This retrospective study included data from 653 children and adolescents (median age 7 years 2 months; 63.9% girls) from Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Slovenia were available for the analysis. Key findings:
One fifth (N = 134) of all children were asymptomatic.
In symptomatic children, the most common leading symptom was abdominal pain (33.3%), followed by growth retardation (13.7%) and diarrhoea (13.3%). Many children (47.6%; N = 247) were polysymptomatic.
Symptoms and signs of malabsorption (eg. diarrhea and distention) were significantly more common in younger (P < 0.001)
The investigators enrolled 53 adults with celiac disease (CD) for at least two years and followed symptoms as well as stool/urine testing for gluten immunogenic peptide (GIP). “GIP in stool can detect gluten consumption of more than 40 mg/d and the urine tests are positive from 40 and 500 mg/d of gluten.”
Over the 4-week study period, weekend samples (urine) identified 70% of patients excreted GIP at least once, compared with 62% during weekdays (stool).
Patients had a median of 3 exposures during the 4 weeks.
Also, the authors noted increases in GIP excretion towards the end of the study. “This suggests a potential Hawthorne effect that could be explained by a decrease in hypervigilance that often is seen in a context of research studies.”
The authors note that GIP “excretions of greater than 2 mcg/g in stool or greater than 12 ng/mL in urine can induce mucosal damage in almost 100% of patients.”
My take: This study adds to the body of literature emphasizing the high rate of inadvertent gluten exposure.
This study consisted of 14 adults with biopsy-proven celiac disease (CD) who were randomized to 3 g or 10 g gluten/day intake for 14 days. Each participant underwent extensive studies to detect histological, visible, and biochemical changes associated with gluten introduction. Data required multiple endosopic duodenal biopsies, VCEs and blood collection.
Symptoms and plasma interleukin-2 levels “increased significantly or near significantly at both doses.”
Interleukin-2 appeared to be the earliest, most sensitive marker of acute gluten exposure. IL-2 increases were observed 4 hours after exposure in patients with CD but not in healthy controls.
Intestinal damage is more complex and requires a longer duration and higher dose of gluten exposure. In this study, the higher dose (10 g) of gluten exposure was required for enteropathy within the study time frame.
My take: These study findings need to be confirmed in a broader patient cohort. However, in patients needing a gluten challenge, IL-2 response after a single-dose (measured at 4 hours) could be helpful. Those without IL-2 response are unlikely to have CD. Those with an IL-2 response at 4 hours, could confirm CD by completing a gluten challenge.
A recent large retrospective study (R Mandile et al. JPGN 2021; 72: 282-287. Seronegative Villous Atrophy in Children: Clinical and Immunohistochemical Features) provides information about conditions, besides celiac disease (CD) which present with villous atrophy. 64 of 1282 pediatric patients were seronegative with villous atrophy; seronegative was defined as testing negative twice for serology (TTG IgA/EMA or if IgA-deficient, IgG antibody serology).
Diagnoses were: inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) (21/64), food allergy (8/64), infections (7/64, of which 3 HIV infections), immune deficiency (3/64), short bowel syndrome (3/64), congenital diarrhea (2/64), other/inconclusive diagnosis (8/64). In addition, there were 12 with Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) & the authors speculate that perhaps hyperacidity could play a role in some of these cases.
Only one quarter of the seronegative patients had an increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytosis (IELs)
Among those with villous atrophy attributed to IBD, this was nearly equally-split between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, 10 and 11 patients respectively (according to Table 1)
The authors note that the ~5% of patients with seronegative villous atrophy with alternative diagnosis than Celiac disease may be an overestimation as more individuals are being diagnosed without biopsy based on serology
Despite the large cohort, there are still other rare conditions that were not identified in this study (eg. autoimmune enteropathy, CTLA4B deficiency,drug-induced enteropathy, and tropical sprue)
My take: This article provides a good starting point for patients with villous atrophy and negative serology.
The overall prevalence of celiac disease in the entire cohort was 0.6%. Of those with functional constipation, 1 (0.5%) was diagnosed with celiac disease, and 3 (0.7%) of the control patients
The authors note that some prior publications (references 11 and 12) have found a slight increase risk of celiac disease in children with constipation.
My take: In children with functional constipation, the yield from testing for celiac disease is very low and probably not significantly greater than the general population. In children with irritable bowel syndrome (which is often confused with constipation), the yield is probably a bit higher.
Beginning at 1 year after a diagnosis of CD, 29 patients (0.06%) received a diagnosis of small bowel adenocarcinoma vs 45 reference individuals (0.02%).
HRs were small bowel adenocarcinoma 3.05, carcinoids 0.59, and adenomas 5.73.).
Overall, there was 1 extra case of small bowel adenocarcinoma in every 2944 patients with CD followed for 10 years.
There was an inverse association between mucosal healing risk of future small bowel adenocarcinoma (HR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.02–1.61), although the HR failed to attain statistical significance.
It is important to note that lymphoma is much more common malignancy than adenocarcinoma in celiacdisease. The authors, in their discussion, state: “compared with lymphomas, small bowel adenocarcinomas were approximately 10 times less common in patients with CD.” At the same time, with the discovery of milder cases of Celiac disease, lymphoma risk is not nearly as high as previously suggested. A large cohort study (Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2012; 10: 30-36) of ~45,000 did not see an increased risk of GI cancers beyond the first year after diagnosis. In addition, another study (Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 763), found that mortality NOT worsened in undiagnosed celiac disease (identified by review of serology) in Olmstead County, though bone density decreased. n=129 of 16,847. (?milder cases undiagnosed). Related post: Good News For Celiac Disease
My take (mostly borrowed from authors): There is a tiny increase in risk of “small bowel adenomas and adenocarcinomas in patients with diagnosed CD, but only a very marginal increase in terms of absolute risk. Our results do not imply a need for surveillance but celiac individuals with signs or symptoms of malignancy should merit further investigation for small bowel adenocarcinoma. Mucosal healing was strongly associated with lower risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma, although the association failed to reach statistical significance.’ Lymphoma is a more common malignancy associated with CD but the absolute risk remains low.
Methods: The authors identified 65 relevant studies after searching databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, CINAHL, DARE, and SIGLE through June 25, 2019 for studies assessing the risk of CeD in patients with IBD, and IBD in patients with CeD
Among patients with celiac disease, there was an increased risk of IBD vs controls (RR 9.88; 95% CI 4.03–24.21); the risk was greater for Crohn’s disease than ulcerative colitis
Among patients with inflammatory bowel disease, there was an increased risk of celiac disease vs controls (risk ratio [RR] 3.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23–7.02); however, this finding needs to be interpreted with a lot more caution.
The population-based studies that identified this risk relied on ICD codes.
Celiac diagnosis is much more difficult in patients with IBD. Overdiagnosis is possible due to increased surveillance, and misinterpretation of serology (eg. false positive serology). In addition, the pooled prevalence in this study of 0.75%, while greater than the controls of 0.3%, remains lower that the current worldwide prevalence of approximately 1%.
Only more prospective cohort studies will prove a definitive increase in risk.
My take: In patients with either IBD or celiac disease, clinicians should consider additional diagnoses in patients with ongoing symptoms.
In some patients with celiac disease, institution of a gluten-free diet may be detrimental without good dietary counseling as a highly-processed diet can increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events.
In total dietary surveys were completed for 100 children with celiac disease. Key findings:
77% consumed processed gluten-free (GF) foods multiple times per day
20% ate exclusively processed GF foods
The main reasons for processed GF foods were convenience and taste
Patients and families interest in dietary counseling diminished with time. In children <1 year from diagnosis, 35% were interested in dietary feedback, compared to 18% 2-3 years after diagnosis, 15% 4-6 years after diagnosis, and 11% at 7+ years from diagnosis
The authors speculate that highly-processed foods are leading to obesity which is increasingly reported in pediatric celiac disease.
The greatest opportunity for dietary counseling is at the time of the diagnosis.
Children with celiac disease commonly consume an unhealthy diet and are at risk for the same types of outcomes as children without celiac disease who also frequently consume an unhealthy diet