IBD Shorts -October 2019

Briefly noted:

D Piovani et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 157: 647-59.  This study examined environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease after extensive literature review and assessment of meta-analysis.

9 factors that were associated with increased risk of IBD:

  • smoking (CD)
  • urban living (CD & IBD)
  • appendectomy (CD)
  • tonsillectomy (CD)
  • antibiotic exposure (IBD)
  • oral contraceptive use (IBD)
  • consumption of soft drinks (UC)
  • vitamin D deficiency (IBD)
  • Heliobacter species (non-Helicobacter pylori-like) (IBD)

7 factors that associated with reduced risk of IBD:

  • physical activity (CD)
  • breatfeeding (IBD)
  • bed sharing (CD)
  • tea consumption (UC)
  • high folate levels (IBD)
  • high vitamin D levels (CD)
  • H pylori infection (CD, UC, and IBD)

EL Barnes et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 1474-80. In this review which identified 12 studies and 4843 with an IPAA ( ileal pouch-anal anastomosis) for ulcerative colitis, 10.3% were ultimately diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Link to full text and video explanation: The Incidence and Definition of Crohn’s Disease of the Pouch: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

EV Loftus et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 1522-31. In this study with 2057 adalimumab-naive patients, “the proportion of patients in HBI remission increased from 29% (573 of 1969; baseline) to 68% (900 of 1331; year 1) and 75% (625 of 831; year 6). Patients stratified by baseline immunomodulator use had similar HBI remission rates.”  Full text: Adalimumab Effectiveness Up to Six Years in Adalimumab-naïve Patients with Crohn’s Disease: Results of the PYRAMID Registry

The following study was summarized in previous blog: Oral Antibiotics For Refractory Inflammatory Bowel Disease  Full text link: Efficacy of Combination Antibiotic Therapy for Refractory Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Washington Park, Portland, OR

IBD Briefs August 2019

A Levine et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 157: 440-50.  This study found that a Crohn’s Disease Exclusion Diet plus partial enteral nutrition induced sustained remission in a 12-week prospective randomized controlled trial with 74 children.  At week 12, “76% of 37 children given CDED plus PEN were in corticosteroid-free remission compared with 14 (45.1%) of 31 children given” EEN followed by PEN.  The associated editorial on pages 295-6 provides a useful diagram of various dietary therapy components for a large number of diets that have been given for IBD.  The editorial recommends:

“For now, simple dietetic recommendations such as consuming a well-balanced diet prepared largely from fresh ingredients and thereby avoidance of emulsifiers and additives and processed foods are appropriate for all patients.  In select patients,…a trial of dietary therapy alone with a diet such as CDED could be attempted for a short period of time, with close follow-up, and with agreement with the patient that failure to fully respond is an indication to escalate therapy.”  More dietary trials are ongoing.

Related blog posts:

NJ Samadder et al Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 1807-13. In this cohort from Utah 1996-2011 with 9505 individuals with IBD, 101 developed colorectal cancer.  Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for CRC in patients with Crohn’s disease was 3.4, in ulcerative colitis 5.2, in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis 14.8.  A family history of CRC increased the risk of CRC in patients with IBD to 7.9 compared to general population.  Family hx/o CRC increased the SIR by about double the CRC risk in IBD patients without a family hx/o CRC.

CR Ballengee et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 1799-1806. In this study with 161 subjects from the RISK cohort, the authors found that elevated CLO3A1 levels in subjects with CD was associated with the development of stricturing disease but was not elevated in those with strictures at presentation and in those who did not develop  strictures.

AL Lightner et al IBD 2019; 25: 1152-68.  Short- and Long-term Outcomes After Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis in Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review.  This review included 42 papers.

  • Rates of superficial surgical site infection, pelvic sepsis, and small bowel obstruction at <30 days were 10%, 11%, and 14% respectively.
  • Rates of pouchitis, stricture, chronic fistula, incontinence and pouch failure were 30%, 17%, 12%, 20% and 8% respectively with followup between 37-109 months.
  • Mean 24-hour stool frequency was 5.

MC Choy et al IBD 2019; 25: 1169-86.  Systematic review and meta-analysis: Optimal salvage therapy in acute severe ulcerative colitis.  Among 41 cohorts (n=2158 cases) with infliximab salvage, overall colectomy-free survival was 69.8% at 12 months.  The authors could not identify an advantage of dose-intensification in outcomes, though this was used more often in patients with increased disease severity, “which may have confounded the results.”

Hood River, OR

IBD Briefs: May 2019 (Part 2)

KP Quinn et la. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 25: 460-71.  This is a terrific review of evaluation and management of pouch disorders.

A Armuzzi et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 25: 568-79. This prospective cohort study examined infliximab biosimilar in 810 patients (PROSIT cohort).  This included 459 patients naive to anti-TNF therapy (group a) , 196 with previous exposure (group b), and 155 who were switched while on original infliximab (group c).  At 12 months, patients without a loss of response were 71%, 64%, and 82% respectively in these three groups.

S Coward et al Gastroenterol 2019; 156: 1345-53. This study from Canada used population-based health administrative data from multiple provinces and then applied autoregressive integrated moving average regression to predict prevalence of IBD in 2030. Key point: “In 2018, 267,983 Canadians were estimated to be living with IBD, which was forecasted to increase to 402,853 by 2030.” This is approximately 1% of the population (981 per 100,000).

F Castiglione et al. Aliment Pharm Ther 2019; 49: 1026-39. This observational longitudinal study with 218 patients with Crohn’s disease who completed 2-years of anti-TNF treatment examined transmural healing via ultrasonography (≤3 mm bowel wall thickness).  “Transmural healing was associated with a higher rate of steroid-free clinical remission (95.6%), lower rates of hospitalization (8.8%) and need for surgery 0%).”  The authors conclude that transmural healing is associated with better long-term clinical outcomes than mucosal healing.

“Magic Fountain” Barcelona


Delayed Pouch Closure in the Surgical Management of Ulcerative Colitis

B Kochar et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018; 24: 1833-9.  This study reviewed prospectively collected data from 2011-2015 involving 2390 Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis (IPAA) surgeries for ulcerative colitis in those ≥18 years of age.  Two approaches were compared:

  1. ‘Traditional’ 2- stage IPAA where the pouch is created with the colectomy
  2. Or a 3-stage surgery where the pouch is created in a second surgery after the colectomy (delayed pouch creation)

Key findings:

  • Delayed pouch creation were significantly less likely to have an unplanned reoperation (RR =0.42, CI 0.24-0.75) and less likely to have major adverse events (RR=0.72, CI 0.52-0.99)
  • Those in the delayed pouch creation group were much less likely to be receiving chronic immunosuppression at the time of surgery –15% compared to 51% in 2-stage group

My take: Particularly for sicker patients, delayed pouch creation (3-stage procedure) is likely to be best approach.

Related blog posts:

IPAA (Pouch) for Crohn’s Disease and Indeterminate Colitis

A recent review (S Chang, B Shen, F Remzi. Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2017; 13: 466-75 Full text link: When Not to Pouch: Important Considerations for Patient Selection for Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis) makes recommendations regarding Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for Crohn’s disease and indeterminate colitis. Key points:

  • In CD patients with isolated colitis and without perianal disease, “there were no differences in the rates of postoperative complications, pelvic sepsis, or pouch failure compared with UC patients” (GE Reese et al. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50: 239-50).
  • Rates of pouch retention for CD (Table 2) ranged from 43% to 94% in 19 studies. Most of these studies had small numbers (less than 40 patients). In the two largest studies with 97 patients and 150 patients, both with ~10 year followup, pouch retention rates were 74% and 87% respectively.
  • “Patients carrying the diagnosis of IC have pouch function on par with patients with UC, with no significant difference in the number of bowel movements…However, ..are more likely to develop CD of the pouch. Nevertheless, pouch failure rates among IC, IBD-unclassified, and UC are similar in multiple cohorts.”
  • Rates of pouch retention for IC ranged from 73%-100% among the 13 cited studies, though only 2 studies reported rates less than ~90%. The two largest studies with ~340 patients had retention rates of ~95% and followup of 3.4 yrs and 10.2 years.

This review also discusses IPAA and other issues including obesity (which increases the likelihood of complications), sphincter dysfunction, elderly patients, and radiation therapy.

Of note, recent ESPGHAN IBD Porto Group guideline for surgical Crohn’s disease management in children (J Amil-Dias et al JPGN 2017; 64: 818-35) at first glance seems to be at odds with Chang et al recommendations:

  • “Statement 8. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is not recommended when a patient has CD. (Agreement 100%)”
  • The body of the report is more nuanced: “There is, however, recent growing evidence that supports highly selective use of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for CD. These patients have isolated colonic CD and no evidence of ileal or perianal involvement.”

To me, statement 8 should have been worded to include “except in limited circumstances.”  As it stands now, it misleads those who do not carefully review the entire report.

My take: The report by Chang et al makes a strong case for its conclusion: “Although it is true that the diagnosis of CD is a potential contraindication to IPAA, patients with isolated Crohn’s colitis may thrive after pouch surgery.  At this time, patients with isolated Crohn’s colitis (without perianal disease or small bowel involvement) have good pouch retention rates.”  Their review prompted me to look more closely at the ESPGHAN IBD Porto Group guideline; their Statement 8 recommendation is, in fact, quite misleading.

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

Keyhole view , looking into the Rotunda UVa, of Thomas Jefferson (or TJ for those in the know)

October 2016: IBD Studies

Briefly noted:

E Zittan et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2016; 22: 2442-47.  In this study with 773 patients with history of ulcerative colitis/ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, there was no significant difference in complications/leak among the 196 with preoperative anti-TNF exposure (n=26, 13.2%) compared with the control group (n=66, 11.7%). Preoperative anti-TNF exposure does not appear to worsen outcomes after surgery.

C Hartman et al. JPGN 2016; 63: 437-444. This cross-sectional survey of 68 children with IBD (57 Crohn’s disease) found frequent nutrient deficiencies based on 3 day diet records.  Interestingly, children on exclusive enteral nutrition were much less likely to have inadequate intakes of energy, minerals, or micronutrients. This article provides plenty of reasons for children with IBD, particularly Crohn’s disease, to work with a nutritionist.

M Fischer et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2016; 22: 2402-09. In a cohort study of 67 patients (35 with Crohn’s, 31 with ulcerative colitis, and 1 indeterminate colitis), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for refractory Clostridium difficile infection was successful in 53 (79%) with a single infusion.  Four of the 14 failures, subsequently responded to anti-CDI antibiotics. Of the 8 who had a 2nd FMT, 6 were successful; and 1 of 2 responded to 3rd FMT.  Thus, 60 of 67 responded overall to FMT.  After FMT, IBD disease activity was reported as improved in 25 (37%), no change in 20 (30%) and worse in 9 (13%).  In this cohort, 1 needed colectomy and 1 needed diversion.  This article indicates that FMT for CDI in IBD was associated with high cure rates and low risk of IBD flare.

A Khoruts et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 14: 1433-38. This was a study of 272 consecutive patients that underwent FMT for recurrent CDI. 15% had established IBD and 2.6% were determined to have IBD at time of FMT.  74.4% of IBD patients responded to a single FMT compared with 92.1% of patients without IBD.  More than one quarter of IBD patients experienced a clinical flare after FMT.

MA Conrad et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2016: 22: 2425-31.  This review of early pediatric experience with vedolizumab in 21 subjects (16 with Crohn’s disease) identified a clinical response in 6/19 (31.6%) evaluable subjects at week 6 and 11/19 (57.9%) by week 22. Steroid-free remission was noted in 3/20 at 14 weeks (15%) and 4/20 (20.0%) at 22 weeks.  Overall, this shows a fairly low response rate to vedolizumab in this highly selected cohort.  Prospective pediatric studies of vedolizumab are needed to identify which patients are most likely to benefit.

University of Virginia Rotunda

University of Virginia Rotunda


Pouchitis -Not So Rare in Patients with FAP

In their introduction (KP Quinn et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 14: 1296-1301), the authors state the following:  “Despite the widely held notion that pouchitis is a rare complication in FAP following IPAA, clinical experience at our institution suggests [it]…is underestimated.”

Methods: retrospective cohort study of all FAP patients who underwent IPAA (ileal ouch-anal anastomosis) from 1992-2015 at their institution (Mayo clinic), n=113.

Key findings:

  • 25 (22.1%) developed pouchitis with a mean time to pouchitis of 4.1 years.
  • Of the 25 who developed pouchitis, 72% had an acute course and 28% had a chronic course.

My take: While pouchitis does occur more commonly in IBD following IPAA, it does occur with FAP more frequently than previously described.

Related blog post: