IBD Briefs: May 2019 (Part 2)

KP Quinn et la. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 25: 460-71.  This is a terrific review of evaluation and management of pouch disorders.

A Armuzzi et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 25: 568-79. This prospective cohort study examined infliximab biosimilar in 810 patients (PROSIT cohort).  This included 459 patients naive to anti-TNF therapy (group a) , 196 with previous exposure (group b), and 155 who were switched while on original infliximab (group c).  At 12 months, patients without a loss of response were 71%, 64%, and 82% respectively in these three groups.

S Coward et al Gastroenterol 2019; 156: 1345-53. This study from Canada used population-based health administrative data from multiple provinces and then applied autoregressive integrated moving average regression to predict prevalence of IBD in 2030. Key point: “In 2018, 267,983 Canadians were estimated to be living with IBD, which was forecasted to increase to 402,853 by 2030.” This is approximately 1% of the population (981 per 100,000).

F Castiglione et al. Aliment Pharm Ther 2019; 49: 1026-39. This observational longitudinal study with 218 patients with Crohn’s disease who completed 2-years of anti-TNF treatment examined transmural healing via ultrasonography (≤3 mm bowel wall thickness).  “Transmural healing was associated with a higher rate of steroid-free clinical remission (95.6%), lower rates of hospitalization (8.8%) and need for surgery 0%).”  The authors conclude that transmural healing is associated with better long-term clinical outcomes than mucosal healing.

“Magic Fountain” Barcelona

 

Delayed Pouch Closure in the Surgical Management of Ulcerative Colitis

B Kochar et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018; 24: 1833-9.  This study reviewed prospectively collected data from 2011-2015 involving 2390 Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis (IPAA) surgeries for ulcerative colitis in those ≥18 years of age.  Two approaches were compared:

  1. ‘Traditional’ 2- stage IPAA where the pouch is created with the colectomy
  2. Or a 3-stage surgery where the pouch is created in a second surgery after the colectomy (delayed pouch creation)

Key findings:

  • Delayed pouch creation were significantly less likely to have an unplanned reoperation (RR =0.42, CI 0.24-0.75) and less likely to have major adverse events (RR=0.72, CI 0.52-0.99)
  • Those in the delayed pouch creation group were much less likely to be receiving chronic immunosuppression at the time of surgery –15% compared to 51% in 2-stage group

My take: Particularly for sicker patients, delayed pouch creation (3-stage procedure) is likely to be best approach.

Related blog posts:

IPAA (Pouch) for Crohn’s Disease and Indeterminate Colitis

A recent review (S Chang, B Shen, F Remzi. Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2017; 13: 466-75 Full text link: When Not to Pouch: Important Considerations for Patient Selection for Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis) makes recommendations regarding Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for Crohn’s disease and indeterminate colitis. Key points:

  • In CD patients with isolated colitis and without perianal disease, “there were no differences in the rates of postoperative complications, pelvic sepsis, or pouch failure compared with UC patients” (GE Reese et al. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50: 239-50).
  • Rates of pouch retention for CD (Table 2) ranged from 43% to 94% in 19 studies. Most of these studies had small numbers (less than 40 patients). In the two largest studies with 97 patients and 150 patients, both with ~10 year followup, pouch retention rates were 74% and 87% respectively.
  • “Patients carrying the diagnosis of IC have pouch function on par with patients with UC, with no significant difference in the number of bowel movements…However, ..are more likely to develop CD of the pouch. Nevertheless, pouch failure rates among IC, IBD-unclassified, and UC are similar in multiple cohorts.”
  • Rates of pouch retention for IC ranged from 73%-100% among the 13 cited studies, though only 2 studies reported rates less than ~90%. The two largest studies with ~340 patients had retention rates of ~95% and followup of 3.4 yrs and 10.2 years.

This review also discusses IPAA and other issues including obesity (which increases the likelihood of complications), sphincter dysfunction, elderly patients, and radiation therapy.

Of note, recent ESPGHAN IBD Porto Group guideline for surgical Crohn’s disease management in children (J Amil-Dias et al JPGN 2017; 64: 818-35) at first glance seems to be at odds with Chang et al recommendations:

  • “Statement 8. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is not recommended when a patient has CD. (Agreement 100%)”
  • The body of the report is more nuanced: “There is, however, recent growing evidence that supports highly selective use of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for CD. These patients have isolated colonic CD and no evidence of ileal or perianal involvement.”

To me, statement 8 should have been worded to include “except in limited circumstances.”  As it stands now, it misleads those who do not carefully review the entire report.

My take: The report by Chang et al makes a strong case for its conclusion: “Although it is true that the diagnosis of CD is a potential contraindication to IPAA, patients with isolated Crohn’s colitis may thrive after pouch surgery.  At this time, patients with isolated Crohn’s colitis (without perianal disease or small bowel involvement) have good pouch retention rates.”  Their review prompted me to look more closely at the ESPGHAN IBD Porto Group guideline; their Statement 8 recommendation is, in fact, quite misleading.

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

Keyhole view , looking into the Rotunda UVa, of Thomas Jefferson (or TJ for those in the know)

October 2016: IBD Studies

Briefly noted:

E Zittan et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2016; 22: 2442-47.  In this study with 773 patients with history of ulcerative colitis/ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, there was no significant difference in complications/leak among the 196 with preoperative anti-TNF exposure (n=26, 13.2%) compared with the control group (n=66, 11.7%). Preoperative anti-TNF exposure does not appear to worsen outcomes after surgery.

C Hartman et al. JPGN 2016; 63: 437-444. This cross-sectional survey of 68 children with IBD (57 Crohn’s disease) found frequent nutrient deficiencies based on 3 day diet records.  Interestingly, children on exclusive enteral nutrition were much less likely to have inadequate intakes of energy, minerals, or micronutrients. This article provides plenty of reasons for children with IBD, particularly Crohn’s disease, to work with a nutritionist.

M Fischer et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2016; 22: 2402-09. In a cohort study of 67 patients (35 with Crohn’s, 31 with ulcerative colitis, and 1 indeterminate colitis), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for refractory Clostridium difficile infection was successful in 53 (79%) with a single infusion.  Four of the 14 failures, subsequently responded to anti-CDI antibiotics. Of the 8 who had a 2nd FMT, 6 were successful; and 1 of 2 responded to 3rd FMT.  Thus, 60 of 67 responded overall to FMT.  After FMT, IBD disease activity was reported as improved in 25 (37%), no change in 20 (30%) and worse in 9 (13%).  In this cohort, 1 needed colectomy and 1 needed diversion.  This article indicates that FMT for CDI in IBD was associated with high cure rates and low risk of IBD flare.

A Khoruts et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 14: 1433-38. This was a study of 272 consecutive patients that underwent FMT for recurrent CDI. 15% had established IBD and 2.6% were determined to have IBD at time of FMT.  74.4% of IBD patients responded to a single FMT compared with 92.1% of patients without IBD.  More than one quarter of IBD patients experienced a clinical flare after FMT.

MA Conrad et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2016: 22: 2425-31.  This review of early pediatric experience with vedolizumab in 21 subjects (16 with Crohn’s disease) identified a clinical response in 6/19 (31.6%) evaluable subjects at week 6 and 11/19 (57.9%) by week 22. Steroid-free remission was noted in 3/20 at 14 weeks (15%) and 4/20 (20.0%) at 22 weeks.  Overall, this shows a fairly low response rate to vedolizumab in this highly selected cohort.  Prospective pediatric studies of vedolizumab are needed to identify which patients are most likely to benefit.

University of Virginia Rotunda

University of Virginia Rotunda

 

Pouchitis -Not So Rare in Patients with FAP

In their introduction (KP Quinn et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 14: 1296-1301), the authors state the following:  “Despite the widely held notion that pouchitis is a rare complication in FAP following IPAA, clinical experience at our institution suggests [it]…is underestimated.”

Methods: retrospective cohort study of all FAP patients who underwent IPAA (ileal ouch-anal anastomosis) from 1992-2015 at their institution (Mayo clinic), n=113.

Key findings:

  • 25 (22.1%) developed pouchitis with a mean time to pouchitis of 4.1 years.
  • Of the 25 who developed pouchitis, 72% had an acute course and 28% had a chronic course.

My take: While pouchitis does occur more commonly in IBD following IPAA, it does occur with FAP more frequently than previously described.

Related blog post:

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