Long-term data for entecavir continue to look good (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012; 10: 1047-1050).
With this study, the authors performed a post hoc analysis of 94 Asian patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positve (HBeAg+) nucleus(t)ice analogue-naive patients who received 5 years of entecavir therapy. By five years, 66 patients remained in the study; of the other 28: 11 withdrew consent, 4 completed treatment, 5 died, 2 were lost to followup, 2 had minimal virologic response, and 4 had other reasons.
- 63 of 66 (95%) patients who completed 5 years of therapy had HBV DNA < 300 copies/mL
- 50 of 66 (76%) had normalized levels of alanine aminotransferase
- 26 of 65 (40%) had HBeAg loss
- 12 of 65 (18%) had HBeAg seroconversion
- No resistance to entecavir was detected
Related blog entries:
- Lessons about HBV in NYC
- More on perinatal HBV
- Looking for trouble
- How to stop HBV vertical transmission
References on Hepatitis B Management:
- –Chronic Hepatitis B: Update_2009 AASLD Practice Guidelines
- -Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 9: 85. Mgt recommendations.
- -Hepatology 2010; 52: 2192. Consensus guidelines suggest that IFN is treatment of choice in pediatric pts (<16yrs) due to resistance among nucleosides and lack of pediatric studies with these agents along with PEG-IFN. Does not recommend Rx for immune tolerant (NL ALT, HBeAg+, HBV >20K), inactive dz (NL ALT, HBeAg-Neg, HBV <2K), mild disease. Reactivation (HBeAg-Neg, HBV>2K IU/mL & +ALT1.5ULN or >60) & Immune active (+ALT1.5ULN or >60, HBeAg+, HBV >20K) can be treated if mod-severe dz.
- -JPGN 2009; 48: 399-404. For children, IF +HBeAg/HBV DNA> 20,000 IU/mL & ALT>2 x ULN, Rx post 3months (sooner if decompensating). IF +HBeAg/HBV DNA> 20,000 IU/mL & ALT<2 x ULN or if inactive replication, then monitor. Consider: Follow yearly U/S, q6mo AFP. IF HBV DNA <20K U/mL & NL ALT: no Rx, monitor q6-12mo. IF HBV DNA >20K U/mL & NL ALT, low rate of HBeAg conversion, young pts often immunotolerant, consider biopsy, esp if >35yrs. IF HBV DNA >20K U/mL & incr ALT, then Rx options entecavir, tenofovir, PEG interferon alfa-2a preferred.
- Hepatology 2009; 49: May 2009 supplement -Entirely on management of HBV: S1-S199. NIH Consensus conference. S8: “Reasonable to monitor this group ((younger than 40/HBeAg+) without therapy unless evidence of progressive liver disease is found” S10 Table 1 -Criteria for determining Rx. Generally not indicated: immune-tolerant phase (High HBV DNA but normal ALT or little activity on Bx).S119: “almost all of the oral agents are superior to interferon-based therapy in achieving other clinical endpoints…and in achieving biochemical and histological improvement…in addition, with longer use, oral agents can equal and exceed the level of pegIFN-associated HBeAg & HBsAg serologic responses w/o the need for injections, side effects…”
- -Hepatology 2009; 49: 699. German Rx guidelines: IF HBV DNA+ & Cirrhosis –>Rx. IF HBV DNA >10 to 4th and any of the following: ALT >2X, F2 + inflammation, Risk HCC/extrahep dz—>Rx. If none of these reeval q6-12mo
Additional entecavir/tenofovir references:
- -Gastroenterol 2011; 141: 1212. Entecavir effective as monotherapy post OLT.
- -Hepatology 2010; 53: 763. No resistance with tenofovir over 2yrs. n=641 (HBe+ & HBe-neg)
- -Gastroenterol 2011; 140: 132. n=365. Excellent efficacy of tenofovir over 3 yr Rx for HBV. 87% of HBeAg-neg with undetectable HBV & 74% of HBeAg-pos. 8% of HBeAg-pos lost HBsAg & 34% lost HBeAg.
- -Hepatology 2009; 51: 73. n=131. Tenofovir Rx.
- -Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 9: 274. Use of entecavir (long term) reverses fibrosis in HBV
- -Hepatology 2010; 52: 886. Long term entecavir Rx (>6yrs) with good efficacy & improved histology (96%), n=69.
- -Hepatology 2009; 49: 1503. Long term entecavir Rx with LOW resistance. n=608 @ yr1, 108 @ yr5. Resistance ~1%
- -Hepatology 2009; 50: 1064. Entecavir less effective in pts with combined LAM/ADV resistance.
- -Hepatology 2008; 48: 99. Entecavir for lamivudine-refractory HBV thru 96 weeks. n=141 entecavir, n=145 lam. Entecavir fairly effective (81% had NL Alt, 10% HBeAg seroconversion) 6/77 in 2nd yr developed resistance much higher than those in studies who never rec’d lamivudine
- -NEJM 2007; 356: 2614. Use entecavir with caution in pts coinfected w HIV -may select for resistant organisms in those not on fully sppressive antiretroviral regimens.
- -NEJM 2006; 354: 1001, 1011, 1074. Hepatitis B patients: At 48 weeks, Entecavir-Rx’d HBeAg+ had 72% histologic response, 67% c undetectable HBV DNA, and 68% normalized ALT (n=314/314 entecavir/lamivudine pts). At 48 weeeks among HBeAG-neg, 90% in entecavir group (n=296 vs. 287 lamivudine pts) w/o detectable HBV DNA, 78% c Nl ALT, 70% c histologic improvement. Entecavir has caused cancer in mice.
- -Hepatology 2006; 44: 1656. Entecavir had highly potent efficacy in reducing HBV DNA levels to <300 copies/mL. Study of 673 Rx’d pts. In HBeAg+, 69% were HBV DNA-neg at 48 weeks, & 82% at 96 weeks; in HBeAg-neg, 93% at 48 weeks & 96% at 96 weeks were HBV DNA neg. Low level of resistance due potent HBV DNA levels.