Updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of constipation by NASPGHAN and ESPGHAN have undergone formal peer review are likely to be published soon (available online with the following link: bit.ly/1geLxrk). “Evidence-Based Recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN for Evaluation and Treatment of Functional Constipation in Infants and Children” by Merti Tabbers, Carlo DiLorenzo et al. The following are some of their recommendations.
- The ROME III criteria are recommended for the definition of functional constipation for all age groups.
- Diagnosis of functional constipation is based on history and physical examination.
- There is no role for the routine use of an abdominal X-ray to diagnose functional constipation.
- A plain abdominal radiography may be used in a child in whom fecal impaction is suspected but in whom physical examination is unreliable/not possible.
- Based on expert opinion, a 2-4 weeks trial of avoidance of cow’s milk protein may be indicated in the child with intractable constipation.
- Routine laboratory testing to screen for hypothyroidism, celiac disease and hypercalcemia is not recommended in children with constipation in the absence of alarm symptoms.
- We do not recommend the use of biofeedback as additional treatment in childhood constipation.
- Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with or without electrolytes orally 1-1.5 gr/kg/day for 3-6 days is recommended as first-line treatment for children presenting with fecal impaction
- An enema once a day for 3-6 days is recommended for children with fecal impaction if PEG is not available.
- PEG with or without electrolytes is recommended as first-line maintenance treatment. A starting dose of 0.4 gr/kg/day is recommended and the dose should be adjusted according to the clinical response.
- Addition of enemas to the chronic use of PEG is not recommended.
- Based on expert opinion, use of milk of magnesia, mineral oil and stimulant laxatives may be considered as additional or second line treatment.
- Antegrade enemas are recommended in the treatment of selected children with intractable constipation.
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