L Laine, A Nagar. Am J Gastroenterol 2016; 111: 913-15.
This reference explains how these clinicians discuss the long-term use of proton-pump inhibitors with their adult patients. Thanks to Ben Gold for this reference. Here are a couple pointers:
- “The recent studies about CKD (chronic kidney disease) and dementia, similar to many prior studies assessing PPI risk, are retrospective observational studies…This results in differences between PPI users and non-users in factors that may impact study outcomes and confound results.”
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease: The authors suggest that PPIs for GERD can be stopped >2 weeks after symptoms resolve. For infrequent symptoms, H2RAs, lifestyle modifications and intermittent PPIs often suffice.
- Barrett’s esophagus: “observational sutdies suggest that PPIs may decrease progression to neoplastic Barrett’s esophagus”
WHAT WE TELL PATIENTS: “Because of inherent risk of bias and low effect sizes we cannot conclude that associations of PPIs and adverse outcomes such as dementia and CKD in recent observational studies are vailid…Nevertheless, we cannot conclude that risks do not exist…we need to ensure that benefits outweigh potential risk. If PPIs are indicated, using the lowest effective dose and, if possible, intermittent rather than daily therapy..should decrease the risk of potential side effects.”
On the same topic, Paul Moayyedi (in Gastroenterology and Endoscopy News, August 2016): “Every study has shown that sicker patients tend to be prescribed PPIs…Sick patients tend to develop other illnesses so PPIs will be associated with about any disease you can imagine in a database.” As such, he asserts that weak associations (OR <2) are usually due to cofounding factors. “The only benefit [these studies]..have is that it is another opportunity to discuss with the patients about stopping their PPI therapy, as there are a significant proportion…on these drugs unnecessarily.”