Do Acid Blockers Given to Infants Increase the Risk of Allergic Disease?

A recent retrospective study (Mitre E, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2018;doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0315) suggests that acid blockers, both histamine receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors increase the risk of developing allergic disease.  Since this is a retrospective study, this association with allergic diseases has NOT been proven to have a causal relationship; thus, an alternative explanation would be that infants who are likely to develop allergic diseases could be prescribed these agents more frequently due to symptoms attributed to reflux.

Here is an excerpt from a summary of this study (from Healio):  Acid-suppressor, antibiotic use in infancy tied to later allergic disease

Of the 792,130 children included in the study (49.9% female), 7.6% were prescribed a histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) and 1.7% were prescribed a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) within the first 6 months of life. Antibiotics also were prescribed for 16.6% of infants included in the study during this time. Mitre and colleagues noted that data continued to be collected on these infants for a median of 4.6 years…

When children were prescribed an H2RA, the researchers noted adjusted HRs of 2.18 (95% CI, 2.04-2.33) for food allergy, 1.70 (95% CI, 1.60-1.80) for medication allergy, 1.51 (95% CI, 1.38-1.66) for anaphylaxis, 1.50 (95% CI, 1.46-1.54) for allergic rhinitis and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.21-1.29) for asthma.

Infants who were prescribed PPIs had comparable aHRs, which the researchers observed at 2.59 (95% CI, 2.25-3.00) for food allergy, 1.84 (95% CI, 1.56-2.17) for medication allergy, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.22-1.73) for anaphylaxis and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.36-1.52) for asthma.

Mitre and colleagues also calculated the aHRs related to later allergic disease in children who were prescribed antibiotics within the first 6 months of life. They observed these rates at 2.09 (95% CI, 2.05-2.13) for asthma, 1.75 (95% CI, 1.72-1.78) for allergic rhinitis, 1.51 (95% CI, 1.38-1.66) for anaphylaxis and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.34-1.50) for allergic conjunctivitis.

My take: This study is another reminder that these agents may be more detrimental than beneficial in the vast majority of infants.

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