While I do not prescribe treatments for ADHD, a recent study (LV Moran et al. NEJM 380: 1128-38) was interesting, indicating that amphetamine use was associated with a greater risk of new-onset psychosis than methylphenidate.
- Amphetamine is used for ADHD treatment in the U.S. but rarely in other developed countries. It releases dopamine four times as much as methylphenidate. “The changes in neurotransmission observed in primary psychosis are more consistent with those induced by amphetamine than methylphenidate”
- Using data from two commercial insurance databases, the authors compared 221,846 patients receiving either amphetamine or methylphenidate. There were 343 episodes of new onset psychosis (defined by diagnosis code and prescription for antipsychotic).
- The risk of psychosis was 0.10% (n=106) in the methylphenidate group compared to 0.21% (n=237) in the amphetamine group. Overall, 1 in 660 patients had new onset psychosis with a greater risk in the patients receiving amphetamine.
My take: Only a prospective study can eliminate confounding variables and determine conclusively whether amphetamine is more likely to increase the risk of psychosis; that said, this study indicates a potential for more risk with amphetamine compared to methylphenidate.
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