Does Reflux Therapy Help Chronic Throat Symptoms? (Probably Not)

A recent study (J O’Hara et al. BMJ 2021;372:m4903. Full text: Use of proton pump inhibitors to treat persistent throat symptoms: multicentre, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial) will probably be another thorn in the side of our ENT colleagues who frequently assert that reflux is likely causing a persistent sore throat. This study is likely to influence empiric treatment by GI physicians as well.


  • Random blinded allocation (1:1) to either 30 mg lansoprazole (n=172) twice daily or matched placebo (n=174) twice daily for 16 weeks of patients with persistent throat symptoms.
  • Eligible patients had persistent (>6 weeks) unexplained throat symptoms—principally hoarseness, throat pain, globus sensation, throat clearing, postnasal secretions or excess mucus, cough, or choking sensation
  • Primary outcome was symptomatic response at 16 weeks measured using the total reflux symptom index (RSI) score.

Key finding:

  • No evidence was found of benefit from PPI treatment in patients with persistent throat symptoms. RSI scores were similar between the lansoprazole and placebo groups after 16 weeks of treatment and at the 12 month follow-up.
  • Improvements (reduction in RSI score) were observed in both groups—score at 16 weeks: lansoprazole 17.4 (15.5 to19.4) and placebo 15.6 (13.8 to 17.3). No statistically significant difference was found between the treatment arms. Furthermore, “no trends were in favour of lansoprazole.”
  • Limitation: “Our trial could be criticised for lacking any objective measure of GORD within the methodology or for employing any such test as an inclusion criteria. However, we did address the use of PPIs in an empirical setting, which was a near universal practice at the time of our study.”

My take (borrowed in part from authors): “No evidence supports the empirical use of PPIs to treat persistent throat and voice symptoms.” Despite this finding, “old habits die hard” and I predict that it will be a long time before this finding is widely adopted into clinical practice.

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