The title of this blog is derived from a Star Trek movie. I think that when we see patients with eosinophilic esophagitis that we are often seeing something new and poorly characterized.
Despite so many unanswered questions, particularly on an individual basis, this topic has seen a lot of interest and there are many advances in both bedside and basic research. The review article (Allergy 2012; DOI: 10: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2012.02787.x) focuses on many of the similarities and differences between pediatric and adult patients. Is it the same disease? (Probably yes)
With regard to medical history, the article reminds clinicians to ask about coping strategies:
- do you wash food down with liquid?
- are you the last one to finish your food?
- do you chew your food a long time?
- do you avoid foods like meats or breads?
Clinical features –main difference is greater presentation variety in children. Adults almost always have long-standing dysphagia. In pediatrics, painful symptoms, reflux symptoms, and feeding refusal are often seen in early stages. In both populations, other atopic diseases are very common.
Immunopathogenesis (same in pediatrics and adults): Th2-type inflammatory response; not just eosinophils but also IL-5-expressing T-cells, B cells, and IgE-bearing mast cells. A break-down of all the types of quantified cells from a large number of studies is detailed (Table 2).
Allergic profile –main difference is much higher aeroallergen sensitization in adolescent & adult patients than in pediatric patients. In children, top four allergens: milk, wheat, egg, and soy. In older patients/adults, nuts are frequent food allergens.
Treatment strategies –basic question of whether to treat for symptomatic relief or histologic response is still debated. Three goals of treatment are the same:
- improve quality of life
- reduce the risk of severe esophageal injury
- prevent esophageal damage
3 D’s of treatment drugs, diet, dilatation:
Drugs: topical steroids (fluticasone, budesonide) are effective in ~50% of children & these agents may reverse subepithelial fibrosis, PPIs -small percentage have EoE PPI-responsive disease, & systemic steroids. Lower doses of budesonide may be effective as maintenance treatment (0.25mg BID). Interestingly, infliximab has not been effective clinically or histologically despite the high amounts of TNF. Azathioprine (or 6-MP) was effective in three steroid-dependent patients in a pilot study.
Diet –review does not cover new territory (see previous blog: Eosinophilic Esophagitis -Six Food Group Diet). States that elemental diets are not practical in adults. Discusses the fact that food allergy identification is difficult & remains a pressing research need.
Dilatation –can provide long-lasting symptom relief. Dilatation is infrequently utilized in pediatrics and virtually never in absence of other therapies.
On a side note, in my training I was taught that there were 3D’s to treating every patient: diet, drugs, and demeanor — a good attitude goes a long way, particularly in an uncertain world.
- -Gastroenterology 2011; 141: 1593. anti-IL-5. partially effective for EoE.
- -JPGN 2010; 51: 723. n=91. Incidental gastric eosinophils does not predict a worse response to fluticasone then isolated EoE.
- -Clin Gastro & Hepatology 2011; 9: 400 (editorial 370). Budesonide at dose of 0.25mg BID was partially effective in adult cohort of n=28.
- -Aceves SS et al. Allergy 2010; 65: 109-116. 3 month course of budesonide can lead to resolution of esophageal remodeling. Lamina propria fibrosis resolution correlates with response to topical steroids. Examined effect on lamina propria after 3 months of Rx.
- -Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 1526. n=36. (summary pg 1429) 15 day course of budesonide (1mg BID). 13/18 in Rx group had improved dysphagia, 72% wiht histologic remission, 92% reduction in eosinophil count. Did not seem to matter if “allergic” or not. 3 pts developed mild candida.
- -Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 418. Randomized placebo study showed effectiveness.n=15 Rx (n=9 placebo). 87% of Rx group responded. 2ml of water with 0.5gm pulmicort and mixed it with 4-5 packets of splenda.
- -JPGN 2007; 45: 281/370/319. Review/research symposium/subepithelial fibrosis associated with EoE & dysphagia.
- -JPGN 2007; 45: 22-31. Th2 Immunity w Eotaxin-3/ C-C chemokine receptor in EoE.
- -Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 1381-1391. Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluticasone for EoE: 880mcg divided bid; n=21 Rx, n=15 placebo. 50% (vs 9% controls) achieved histologic remission; Rx more effective in those w/o detectable food allergies. 67% (vs. 27% controls) resolution of vomiting.
- -Clin Gastro & Hep 2007; 5: xxiv. EoE causing Boerhaave’s syndrome (spontaneous rupture)
- INCREASED FRAGILITY: -Gastrointest Endosc 2003; 57: 407-12. -Clin Gastro Hepatolo 2003; 1: 433-37.
- -Clin Gastro & Hep 2006; 4: 1328. absolute eosinophilia (AEC 440 vs 140 controls), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, and eotaxin-3 act as biomarkers of EE activity.
- -Gastroenterology2006; 131: 2018 (-J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 536-547. ) Eostaxin-3/EcE transcript signature.
- -J Pediatr 2005; 147: 540 Picture of ringed esophagitis.
- -JPGN 2004; 39: S8 [abstract 0005]. CHOP experience in 250 pts. NG elemental diet was most effective. ~6% of pts presenting with GER. Strict avoidance of allergens needed.