Augmentin Hepatotoxicity

Augmentin (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) hepatotoxicity is common, anywhere from 1 in 1000 prescriptions to 1 in 78,000 prescriptions.  Despite its frequent use in pediatrics, there is limited data on augmentin hepatotoxicity in this population.  A recent study adds some information (JPGN 2012; 55: 663-67).

As part of a prospective observational study involving 8 Spanish hospitals from 2008 to 2011, 11 patients, ages 1 to 11 years, with augmentin hepatotoxicity were identified.  Drug-induced hepatotoxicity was suspected in the presence of augmentin therapy if ALT was >2 time ULN, conjugated bilirubin was >2 times ULN, or if other liver biochemistries (AST/GGT or bilirubin) were >2 times ULN.  Causality criteria relied on the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale.

According to CIOMS scale, 3 cases were highly probable for augmentin hepatotoxicity, 3 cases were probable, and 5 cases were possible.  In this study, the patient’s details and labs are given in Table 1.  Most cases were mild.  The most common symptom was vomiting. Only one had a bilirubin >1 mg/dL.  Two had very high ALT values (one 52 times normal). Viral serology (measured at least 2 determinations) and autoimmune titers were negative in all patients.

Resolution of the hepatotoxicity occurred over a 4 to 16 week period.  No cases required a biopsy.  The authors note that many more cases of milder disease likely go undetected.

Related blog entry:

Reference:

  • -Curr Drug Saf 2010; 5: 212-22.  Antibiotic-induced liver toxicity –clinical features/causality.
  • -JPGN 2008; 47: 395-405.  Drug-related hepatotoxicity/liver failure
  • -J Pediatr 2000; 136: 121.  Augmentin & cholestasis. 1.7 cases per 10,000 prescriptions.

1 thought on “Augmentin Hepatotoxicity

  1. Pingback: Data on Drug-Induced Liver Injury | gutsandgrowth

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