Since I participate in the 22q Specialty Clinic in Atlanta, I am interested in relevant clinical studies. A recent study provides more information on clinical features and follow-up (J Pediatr 2014; 164: 1475-80).
This retrospective and prospective multicenter study involved 228 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 4 months. In 71% the diagnosis was made before age 2 years and predominantly related to congenital heart disease and neonatal hypocalcemia.
- The survival probability was 0.92 at 15 years from diagnosis, most commonly from severe cardiovascular complications. Two subjects died without cardiac defects, one with severe autoimmune anemia and the second with lymphoproliferative disease.
- Congenital heart disease was confirmed in 79% of the entire cohort.
- Neonatal hypocalcemia was noted in 43%
- ENT manifestations were present in 59% and included most commonly velopharyngeal insufficiency
- GI manifestations were noted in 41%, particularly feeding difficulties in infancy. Anorectal malformations were identified in 5% and esophageal atresia was noted in 1%. GI problems tended to improve during followup, particularly gastroesophageal reflux. During followup, three children with abdominal pain (along with leg pain) had mild hypocalcemia.
- Autoimmune manifestations developed in 11%, most commonly autoimmune thrombocytopenia.
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- Immunoglobulin deficiencies with DiGeorge Syndrome … This post lists a number of references and resources related to 22Q (aka. DiGeorge Syndrome or Velocardiac Facial Syndrome).