A recent review (B Weiss, O Pinahs-Hamiel. JPGN 2017; 64: 175-79) of the medical literature describes the various recommendations regarding celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
- Two-thirds of patients with T1DM and CD are asymptomatic for CD at diagnosis
- Many children with T1DM and with positive CD serology may normalize the serology spontaneously. In one study with 446 children with T1DM who were screened for CD, 38 had persistently abnormal serology whereas 27 had fluctuations in CD serology. In another study with 738 children, of 48 patients with positive CD serology, normalization was evident in 35% at 1 year.
The authors review recommendations for CD screening. Several guidelines have recommended soon after diagnosis (especially if >2 years of age).
Their figure 1 algorithm provides guidance on evaluation. In those patients with T1DM and positive CD serology, if they are asymptomatic, assuring that serology is persistently elevated may be worthwhile before proceeding with small bowel biopsy. In those who initially test negative for serology, there may be a role for HLA testing and/or periodic screening every few years.
Related editorial on recent article: Celiac Disease, Gut-Brain Axis, and Behavior: Cause, Consequence or Merely Epiphenomenon (A Fasano) Thanks to KT Park for this reference. Excerpt:
By assessing the psychological functioning of infants enrolled in the Environmental Determinant of Diabetes in the Young trial and followed prospectively, the authors reported that 3.5-year-old children affected by celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA), defined as positive serology in children at risk, have increased reports of depression/anxiety, aggressive behavior, and sleep disturbances. Interestingly, these symptoms were significantly greater in the 66 children with CDA whose mothers were unaware of the diagnosis compared with the 440 children with CDA whose mothers were aware of the diagnosis and the 3651 children without CDA, decreasing the chance that the reported behaviors were biased by families’ subjective assessment…Prospective studies such as that reported by Smith et al may be a key approach to shedding light on how intestinal factors can influence human behavior and to identifying possible targets to ameliorate psychological symptoms caused by inappropriate gut-brain cross-talk.
Reference article: Smith L, et al.. Psychological manifestation of celiac disease autoimmunity in young children. Pediatrics. 2017;139(3):e20162848
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