Mechanisms in Fatty Liver Disease Improved After Bariatric Surgery

A recent prospective study (V Nobili et al. J Pediatr 2018; 194: 100-8) consecutively enrolled 20 severely obese adolescents with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The authors used liver histology, immunohistochemistry and cytokine analysis to assess the changes (after 12 months) induced by bariatric surgery with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).

Key findings:

  • NAFLD Activity Score and fibrosis improved after LSG. Steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and NAS score showed a significant improvement (Z=-2.7; P=.007) at 12 months following surgery. Fibrosis improvement (Z=-2.449) was noted as well.
  • The histologic improvement “is associated with activation of local cellular compartments (hepatic progenitor cells, hepatic stellate cells, and macrophages), thus, strengthening the role of cellular interactions and hepatic adipocytokine production in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.”

This study has a large number of figures illustrating the changes in liver architecture and immunohistochemistry changes.

My take: This study shows specific improvements following LSG and shows correlation with cytokines and immunohistochemistry providing a mechanistic explanation for these improvements.

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