Celiac Disease: How Long Is a Gluten Free Diet Needed? (30 Year Data)

A recent study (L Norsa et al. JPGN 2018; 67: 361-6) examines data from 197 patients with celiac disease (CD) (out of a cohort of 337) who had a diagnosis established before 1985. The authors examined three groups: lifelong strict GFD (n=133), discontinued GFD (n=29), and no GFD (22).  A total of 63 had follow-up endoscopy data available, with 29 in lifelong GFD, 20 in discontinued GFD, and 14 in no GFD.

Key findings:

  • In those with followup endoscopy, in those with lifelong GFD 27 of 29 (93%) had no atrophy (Marsh 0-1-2) on histology, in those with discontinued GFD 12 of 20 (60%) had no atrophy on histology, and in those with no GFD 8 of 14 (57%) had no atrophy on histology.
  • Thus, among the group with long-term poor adherence to gluten-free diet, almost two-thirds showed no recurrence of villous atrophy on duodenal biopsies.
  • In the entire cohort of 197, there were no apparent differences in autoimmune diseases between those receiving lifelong GFD (26%) compared to the other two groups, 17% and 23% respectively.

Limitations:

  • retrospective design.
  • initial diagnosis was more than 30 years ago & there are significant differences in the diagnostic approach currently
  • sample size

My take: This study indicates that some individuals who have been diagnosed with celiac disease may be OK with ongoing gluten consumption. Those who maintained a GFD were much more likely  to have no villous atrophy on duodenal biopsies.

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