A recent study (PR Carr, et al. Gastroenterol 2018; 155: 1805-15) used an ongoing population-based case-control DACHS study (in Germany since 2003) to determine the effects of lifestyle factors on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).
Among 4092 patients with CRC and 3032 control patients without CRC, the investigators examined five factors:
- Smoking – For smoking, one point was given for being a nonsmoker or a former smoker with <30 pack years.
- Alcohol consumption – For alcohol, a point was garnered if consumption was moderate according to AICR recommendations.
- Diet – Diet quality was assessed based on WCRF/AICR recommendations (supplement table 1 [https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.08.044]). 1 point was given with highest diet scores.
- Physical activity – A point was given with favorable physical activity which was based on moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for at least 150 minutes per week or 75 minutes of vigorous activity.
- Body fatness – Those with a BMI between 18.5 and 25 which was considered a healthy weight were awarded a point.
Compared to patients with 0 or 1 healthy lifestyle factor:
- Participants with 2 points had odds ratio of 0.85
- Participants with 3 points had odds ratio of 0.62
- Participants with 4 points had odds ratio of 0.53
- Participants with 5 points had odds ratio of 0.33
My take (borrowed from authors): Overall, 45% of CRC cases could be attributed to these lifestyle factors. This occurred despite the patient’s genetic profile
Related blog posts:
- Diet, Meat, and Colorectal Cancer
- Cancer due to Overweight/Obesity
- Better Diet, Lower Mortality
- For Increased Longevity: More Greens are Good