Quantifying the Risk of Autoimmunity for Celiac Disease

A recent study (MR Khan et al. JPGN 2019; 69: 438-42) examined the rates of autoimmune disorders (AD) among patients with celiac disease (CD) (n=249) compared to a control group (n=498) over an 18 year period (1997-2015). The authors utilized the  a database of medical records via the Rochester Epidemiology Project (Mayo Clinic/Olmstead County).

Key findings:

  • Five years after the index date, 5.0% of CD patients and 1.3% of controls had a de novo AD diagnosis
  • In the pediatric age group, there was an increased risk of AD: 5/83 (7.3%) of CD patients and 0/179 (0%) developed a AD diagnosis at the 5-year mark
  • The authors note that they observed a lower rate of Hashimoto thyroiditis after the diagnosis of CD, likely indicating a protective role of a gluten-free diet
  • Thyroid disorders, type 1 DM, psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis were the most common AD identified in patients with CD

Limitations:

  • Retrospective study
  • Adherence with GFD was not assessed

My take: Screening for AD periodically is worthwhile in patients with CD, particularly thyroid disorders and type 1 diabetes which accounted for ~80% of the autoimmune conditions identified.

Briefly noted: R Ahawat et al. JPGN 2019; 69: 449-54. In this study with 38 newly-diagnosed CD, the authors found a high prevalence of low vitamin D (25OHD) levels (65.8%) -defined as <30 ng/mL; however, the control population had a higher rate of 79.3%.  While the authors advocate checking vitamin D levels due to the risk of bone disease, it is noted that bone mineral density and vitamin deficiencies frequently improve with a gluten-free diet (Related post: Celiac studies)

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2 thoughts on “Quantifying the Risk of Autoimmunity for Celiac Disease

    • No guidelines that I am aware of. I think in an asymptomatic individual (no nocturia, no polyuria, no weight loss, etc) that a serum glucose would suffice. In an individual with increased concern,then I agree that HgbA1c would be useful.

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