Review: Infectious Esophagitis

JEM O’Donnell, U Krishnan. JPGN 2022; 75: 556-563.Infectious Esophagitis in Children

Key points:

  • Three most common causes of infectious esophagitis in children: Candida, HSV and CMV. Asperigillus (& other fungi) as well as bacterial esophagitis are rarely seen. Rare viral infections include human papilloma, varicella zoster and EBV
  • For Candida, this is typically a benign commensal organism but can become pathogenic due to changes in immunity (immunocompromised including corticosteroids), altered motility and sometimes after antibiotics (with or without PPI therapy). EoE can present with similar-appearing mucosa; thus, biopsy and/or brushing is needed.
  • With HSV, pediatric case series have reported higher rates in immunocompetent children
  • Typical treatments: fluconazole for Candida, and Acyclovir for HSV. For CMV, potential treatments include ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet or cidofovir.

My take: This is a short, good review of the infections that can cause esophagitis in children.

Related blog post: Image Only: Candida Esophagitis

From JPGN twitter feed: Kodsi classification of esophageal candidiasis.

Alive and well? 10 years after liver transplantation

As survival has improved with liver transplantation (LT), long-term health outcomes have become more important.  Reported 5-year survival rate after pediatric LT in North America is >85%.  More data on long-term health consequences are provided in a review of 167 10-year survivors from a North American Database (Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation –SPLIT) (J Pediatr 2012; 160: 820-6).

Ng VL et al report on frequency of comorbidities as well as quality of life.  Of the 10-year survivors who were included in this study: 85 (50.9%) were transplanted in the first year of life; 69 (41.3%) received transplants between 1-7.9 years.  Biliary atresia accounted for 55.1% of the transplanted cohort; the remainder were due to the following: metabolic liver disease 23 (13.8%), acute liver failure 18 (10.8%), other cholestatic conditions 17 (10.2%), tumor 6 (3.6%), and other 11 (6.6%).

First allograft survival rates were 94% at 1 year and 88% at 10 years.   Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales revealed lower patient self-reported total scale scores for LT survivors compared with healthy children (77.2 vs 84.9, P<.001).  14% had HRQOL >2 SDs below that of a matched healthy population.  Other specific post-LT morbidities included the following:

  • Impaired linear growth (23% <10th percentile); ongoing steroid therapy was associated with increased risk of poor linear growth.
  • Renal dysfunction (9%) –defined as calculated glomerular filtration rate <90 mL/min/1.73 m2.
  • Hyperlipidemia: 20% with hypercholesterolemia, and 26% with hypertriglyciridemia
  • Lymphoproliferative disease (5%).  EBV seroconversion occurred in 46 (47%) of 97 who had been EBV-negative prior to LT.  25 (15%) developed symptomatic EBV infection.
  • School performance: 32 (23%) had repeated a grade or were held back at least 1 school year.
  • Liver fibrosis: at 10 years, elevated aminotransferases were noted in 11% and increased gamma gluatmyl transpeptidase in 15%.  Previous studies from SPLIT indicate fibrosis is common in long-term survivors even with good clinical outcomes.

Alive and well?  While survival has improved remarkably, better outcomes are still needed.

Related posts:

Picking winners and losers with liver transplantation allocation

Good care 24/7

Big gift, how much risk

Additional references:

  • -Pediatrics 2008; 122: 1128-35.  Outcomes of 461 pediatric LT.
  • -Am J Transplant 2008; 8: 2506-13.  Improving long-term outcomes of LT.
  • -Hepatolog 2009; 49: 880-6.  LT-Liver fibrosis at 10 year followup.
  • -JPGN 2008; 47: 165. ~50% below 1.3 SD of adult height. Many show partial catch up growth.
  • -Liver Transplant 2006; 12: 1310. Review article on nutrition for OLTx patient.