Recurrent pancreatitis and genetic underpinnings

While the absolute number of patients with genetic causes of pancreatitis is small, due to frequent hospitalizations, this remains a significant problem.  This month additional information on genetic predisposition for pancreatitis is available (JPGN 2012; 54: 645-50).

Sultan et al (Milwaukee, WI) reviewed the charts of children <18 years with recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) from 2000-2009.   RAP was considered if patient had a minimum of two distinct episodes of acute pancreatitis.  Acute pancreatitis was considered the diagnosis if patient had typical symptoms associated with 3-fold elevation of amylase or lipase or imaging changes consistent with acute pancreatitis. CP was defined as a minimum of 2 episodes of acute pancreatitis associated with pancreatic duct abnormalities or pancreatic insufficiency.

Among this cohort of 29 children, 23 (79%) had mutations which have been associated with genetic pancreatitis (GP).  Family history was positive in only five patients.

  • CFTR mutation in 14 (48%): two had homozygous mutations, six heterozygous, and four had 5 T variants.  The importance of a single CFTR mutation in contributing towards pancreatitis is unclear.  However, the Wisconsin population has a carrier frequency of 1:32; the striking difference in frequency  indicates that even a single mutation may be important in the pathogenesis of RAP.
  • SPINK1 (serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1) in 8 (27%).  SPINK1 mutations occur in 1-3% of the general population.  It is often a modifying factor rather than an isolated causal factor in the development of RAP.  Four of the patients with SPINK1 mutations also had a CFTR mutation.
  • PRSS1 (cationic trypsinogen gene) in 7 (24%).  Individuals with these mutations are considered to have hereditary pancreatitis, an autosomal disease with incomplete penetrance.
  • Only one patient was tested for chymotrypsin C gene (CTRC) –tested negative.

Seven patients with RAP did not undergo genetic testing & were excluded from the study.  These patients had other known causes of RAP: 3 had gallstones, 2 had pancreas divisum, 1 had a metabolic disorder, and 1 had a medication-induced pancreatitis.  The authors note, however, that patients with pancreas divisum have had genetic mutations identified in other studies.

Additional References:

  • www.uni-leipzig.de/pancreasmutation. This link will take you to the hereditary pancreatitis database where you can search for the specific mutation you identified and find articles dealing with a variety of aspects of that particular mutation.
  • 2011 Naspghan Postgraduate Course:
    Pancreatitis Workup
    -1st bout, check U/S, trig
    -if 2nd bout, suggested to check MRI, genetics (SPINK1, PRSS1, CFTR), sweat test, fecal elastase, possibly IgG4/ANA
  • OMIM#167800/276000
  • -Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 1844.  Mouse model w R122H Trypsiongen expression.
  • -Whitcomb DC. Gut 2004; 53: 1710-17. test for PRSS1 (cationic trypsinogen), SPINK1 (Serine protease inhibitor, Kazal Type 1), and CFTR gene.
  • -JPGN 2002; 34: 1A pg 444. n=108 with hereditary or idiopathic pancreatitis. (28% had + fhx)  12 c PRSS1 mutation, 24 c SPINK1 (21 s fhx); 22 had + CFTR mutation.
    -Pancreatology 2001; 1: 405-415.  Consensus guidelines for testing for H. Pancreatitis. PRSS1 gene -cationic trypsinogen
    http://www.pancreas.org/assets/pdfs/Pancreatology/HPgeneTestConsensus.pdf
  •  David Whitcomb’s laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh. The test is commercially available there. Their web site for the forms is:
    http://www.pitt.edu/~whitcomb/HPINFO/MolGenTest.html
  • -JPGN 2011; 52: 262. Review.
  • -J Pediatrics 2011; 158: 612.  Acute pancreatitis can result in diabetes.
  • -Clin Gastro & Hep 2010; 8: 410-416, 417. REVIEW of acute pancreatitis.  Rec NJ generally over TPN.
  • -Clin Gastro Hep 2010; 8: xxii.  Anomalous pancreatobiliary jxn as a cause.
  • -JPGN 2009; 49: 137.  Pancreatitis assoc w celiac
  • -Clin Gastro & Hep 2009; 7: 702.  Harmless Acute pancreatitis score.  Nonsevere when NL hgb, NL creatitine, and no rebound tenderness/guarding
  • -Alim Pharm Ther 2008; 28: 777-781.  Use of a low fat diet helped shorten hospital stay among adult pts with acute pancreatitis.
  • -Clin Gastro & Hep 2008; 6: 1070, 1077.   Fluids and imaging in acute pancreatitis.  With imaging, CT probably best.
  • – J Pediatrics 2008; 152: 106.  Acute pancreatitis in young children

Related blog entry:

Indomethacin to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis

6 thoughts on “Recurrent pancreatitis and genetic underpinnings

  1. Pingback: INSPPIRE for pancreatitis | gutsandgrowth

  2. Pingback: Risk of pancreatitis with celiac disease | gutsandgrowth

  3. Pingback: For the pediatric pancreatologists | gutsandgrowth

  4. Pingback: Chronic Pancreatitis in Pediatrics -Descriptive Study | gutsandgrowth

  5. Pingback: Consensus Pancreatitis Recommendations | gutsandgrowth

  6. Pingback: Pancreatitis Update (part 1) | gutsandgrowth

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.