In addition to a recent blog entry (How to stop HBV vertical transmission), several other recent articles add information about HBV vertical transmission:
- Gastroenterology 2012; 142: 773-81. Data from 2386 Taiwanese children born to HBsAg-positive mothers were examined. HBeAg-positivity increased the likelihood of having an HBV-infected infant (9.26%) despite appropriate immunization & HBIG. Since HBeAg-posiitivity is associated with higher HBV DNA levels, this is logical based on previous studies. Fulminant HBV developed in 1 of 1050 children who did not receive HBIG; in this study, the majority of mothers with HBeAg-negative HBV did not receive HBIG.
- Pediatrics 2012; 129: 609-16. This study examined HBV prevention in the U.S. from 1994-2008. The CDC created the US Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) to accelerate progress at eliminating perinatal HBV transmission. While the number of infants born to HBsAg-positive women with HBV increased from 19,208 to 25,600, the incidence of infants with chronic hepatitis B virus infection among tested infants decreased from 2.1% in 1999 to 0.8% in 2008. This is due to the fact that 94.4% of PHBPP-managed infants received HBV vaccine and HBIG within 1 day of birth. Yet, gaps remain. The number of infants who completed the vaccine series by 12 months actually declined from 86% (1994) to 77.7% (2008). And, in 2008 only one-quarter of CDC’s 25,6000 infants born to HBsAg-positive women had known serologic outcomes.
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