More information for pediatric patients with the perplexing problem of poor gastric emptying is available in three articles:
JPGN 2012; 55: 166-72, 185-90, & 194-199.
The first study by Waseem et al describes the “Spectrum of Gastroparesis:”
- Retrospective chart review included 239 eligible children with mean age of 7.9 years. Nearly equal numbers of males and females. .
- Time to empty half of solid or liquid considered abnormal if more than 45-90 minutes for solid and more than 60 minutes for liquid (labelled pediasure)
- Etiology: idiopathic 70%, drug-induced 18%, postsurgical 12%
- Treatment in 74% diet and erythromycin (74%)
- Over 24 months, 60% had significant improvement regardless of treatment
The second study by Rodriguez et al is titled “Clinical Presentation, Response to Therapy, and Outcome of Gastroparesis in Children.”
- Restrospective study with 230 children, mean age 9 years. In adolescents, female gender was more common (77%) whereas in infants (n=36), male gender was more common (61%). Most common causes were postviral in 42%, mitochondrial in 18%, and diabetes in 5%.
- Delayed gastric emptying was defined as having solids or liquids emptying <40% of the meal at one hour.
- Resolution occurred in 22% at 6 months, 53% at 18 months, and 61% at 36 months. Median time to resolution was 14 months; though among resolvers, 84% did so by 12 months.
- Presence of longer duration of symptoms and mitochondrial disorder was associated with lower rates of resolution.
- Younger age and response to promotility agents increased likelihood of resolution
- Treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were used in 79% as first-line agents; only 3% reported resolution of symptoms with PPIs.
- Prokinetics: Domperidone (0.1-0.2mg/kg/dose qid to max of 10mg) in 33 patients. Tegaserod in 20 patients. Metoclopropramide in 142 patients. Erythromycin (EES) in 40 patients (3-10 mg/kg/dose qid). Of these agents, metoclopropramide was inferior with an 80% failure rate. In contrast, EES was associated with symptom resolution in 5% and symptom improvement in 46%. Domperidone was associated with symptom resolution in 26% and symptom improvement in 48%.
The third study by Bhardwaj et al highlights “Impaired Gastric Emptying and Small Bowel Transit in Children with Mitochondrial Disorders.”
- Prospective study enrolled 26 subjects from mitochondrial clinic. 58 patients were screened but the majority were not eligible; the most common reasons included the following: 14 were receiving enteral feedings, 1 was receiving parenteral nutrition, 6 had no GI symptoms.
- Delayed gastric emptying was considered if >50% at 90 minutes of a solid meal was present, at 60 minutes for semisolid, and at 40 minutes for liquid meal. For small bowel transit, delayed transit was considered if radiotracer had not reached cecum within 4 hours. Severely prolonged transit was diagnosed if transit time exceeded 6 hours.
- In this cohort, 18 (69%) had delayed gastric emptying and 12 (46%) had prolonged small bowel transit. Common symptoms included abdominal pain and vomiting.
- In the small numbers of patients who received prokinetics,there was a poor response. One of three patients with bethanecol and two of five patients with metoclopropramide had normalized GE time; one patient treated with azithromycin continued with abnormal GE time
- -Gastroenterol 2011; 140: 101. Clinical features -mostly females, often incr BMI. Defined as severe gastroparesis if >35% at 4hrs, moderate if 20-35%, and mild if <20%.
- -Clincal Gastro & Hep 2011; 9: 5. Review of diabetic gastroparesis & mgt.
- -Clin Gastro & Hep 2009; 7: 823. Radiation from gastric emptying is ~10mrad, CXR is 12mrad, yearly background is 300mrad.
1 hr 37-90%
2 hr 30-60%
4 hr 0-10%
- -Gastroenterol 2009; 136: 1526. Tests of gastric emptying -review.
- -Clin Gastro & Hep 2008; 6: 1309. algorithm for nausea & delayed GE. REC;
1. small meals, low fiber/fat
2. prokinetic: reglan, EES, ?domperidone
3. Antiemetics: zofran, prochloroperazine
5. ?Botox injection
6. jejunal feeds
- -Gastroenterol 2009; 136: 1526. Tests of gastric emptying -review. Consider domperidone, reglan, ?gastric stimulation, ?surgery, discusses novel Rxs.
- -Gastroenterol 2009; 136: 1225. Review of prevalence and outcomes in Olmsted County.
- -Am J Gastro 2008; 103: 416-23. Botox is NOT effective for gastroparesis/delayed GE.
- Need to distinguish delayed gastric emptying from rumination. Treatment for rumination and belching