Pulmonary Complications Associated with Chronic Liver Disease

A useful review of “pulmonary complications in chronic liver disease” (Hepatology 2014; 59: 1627-37) has been published.

The main topics included hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) , portopulmonary hypertension (POPH), and hepatic hydrothorax (HH).

A few of the key points:

HPS is most common of these conditions and is identified in 5-30% of cirrhosis patients.  It is identified with abnormal oxygenation (screening with pulse ox <96%) due to intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. There is no established medical therapy.  It is reversible with liver transplantation.

The hallmark of POPH is the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with portal hypertension.  It occurs in 5-10% of cirrhosis patients and often presents as dyspnea on exertion/fatigue.  There are numerous pharmacologic treatments that may be useful, include the following:

  • prostacyclin analogs like epoprostenol
  • endothelin receptor antagonists like boesentan
  • phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors like sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil

Severe POPH is a relative contraindication for liver transplantation.

HH is a transudative pleural effusion seen in 5-10% of cirrhosis patients. Initial management includes salt restriction and diuretics.  Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and thoracentesis are second-line options.  Liver transplantation is curative.

Related blog entries:

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

 

 

1 thought on “Pulmonary Complications Associated with Chronic Liver Disease

  1. Pingback: Portopulmonary Hypertension -A Little More Data | gutsandgrowth

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.