NH Ebel et al. JPGN 2019; 68: 788-92. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) did not correlate with the risk of complications from portal hypertension in this pediatric cohort (n=41); this is in contrast to studies in adults showing the utility of HVPG measurements.
AG Singal et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 156: 2149-57. AGA Practice Update on Direct-Acting Antivirals for Hepatitis C and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. There are 12 best practice advice –here are the first three:
BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 1: DAA treatment is associated with a reduction in the risk of incident HCC. The relative risk reduction is similar in patients with and without cirrhosis.
BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 2: Patients with advanced liver fibrosis (F3) or cirrhosis should receive surveillance imaging before initiating DAA treatment.
BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 3: Patients with advanced liver fibrosis (F3) or cirrhosis at the time of DAA treatment represent the highest-risk group for HCC after DAA-induced sustained virologic response. These patients should stay in HCC surveillance
N Hamdane et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 156: 2313-29. This study found that chronic HCV infection induced specific genome-wide-changes in H3K27ac which correlated with expression of mRNAs and proteins. These epigenetic changes persisted after an SVR to DAAs or interferon-based therapies. These changes could explain some of the reason why HCC remains a risk after successful treatment with DAAs.
“The algorithm begins with universal HCV screening and diagnosis by testing for HCV antibody with reflex to polymerase chain reaction to detect HCV RNA. The pretreatment evaluation uses platelet-based stratification to initially assess fibrosis, and the pan-genotypic regimens glecaprevir/pibrentasvir or sofosbuvir/velpatasvir are recommended for treatment. Unless clinically indicated, on-treatment monitoring is optional. Confirmation of cure (undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks posttreatment) is followed by harm-reduction measures, as well as surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma every 6 months in patients with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis.” My take: This algorithm is much simpler than the expanded recommendations from HCVguidelines.org website, though these agents, to my knowledge, do not yet have a pediatric indication.
A survey (O Waisbourd-Zinman, et al. JPGN 2018; 66: 447-49) of 44 pediatric hepatologists (with 935 years of clinical practice) examined the issue of splenic rupture and spleen guards. ~90% of those surveyed reported following at least 30 patients with portal hypertension and splenomegaly.
In total, the hepatologists could recall 13 cases of splenic rupture among patients with portal hypertension/splenomegaly due to cirrhosis –almost all of these occurred after a fall or in a motor vehicle accident. Only one of these falls happened during a sports-related event (soccer).
11 cases were serious. 9 of these cases resulted in shock with subsequent splenectomy, embolization, and/or death. Death reported in 2 cases.
In this survey, 61% of hepatologists recommended “absolute restriction from activity with high risk of blunt abdominal trauma;” whereas 23% indicated that activities with risk of blunt trauma were acceptable if wearing a spleen guard.
To prevent splenic rupture in patients with portal hypertension/splenomegaly, among the participating hepatologists, the majority identified the following ‘high risk’ sports: football (95%), hockey (82%), and wrestling (66%). A smaller percentage advocated a spleen guard for skiing (42%), soccer (41%), basketball (30%) and other sports.
While I did not participate in this survey, the one patient with chronic liver disease that I followed who had a splenic rupture had fallen down a flight of steps; fortunately, he recovered with supportive care.
My take: This survey shows that there is wide variability in the use of spleen guards. In almost all cases of splenic rupture, this was precipitated by severe trauma. Though, patients with portal hypertension may avoid high contact sports and thus the risks are for these sports is unclear.
There have been a number of studies suggesting a beneficial effect of statins for individuals chronic liver disease due to HBV infection, HCV infection, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The potential reasons include lower portal hypertension due to increased nitric oxide availability, anti-inflammatory effects through reduction in some cytokines, and antifibrotic effects. In addition, statins may inhibit tumor initiation/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
The background on these prior studies is detailed in a new population-based study (F-M Chang et al Hepatology 2017; 66: 896-907, editorial 697-9) of statins in patients with cirrhosis. In this nested case-control study from Taiwan, the authors examined patients (n=1350) with cirrhosis from 2000 to 2013. The index cases of cirrhosis were identified among a representative, well-validated general population database of 1,000,000 people.
“Statin use decreased the risk of decompensation, mortality, and HCC in a dose-dependent manner.”
Risk of decompensation among chronic HBV statin users, HR 0.39
Risk of decompensation among chronic HCV statin users, HR 0.51
Risk of decompensation among alcohol-related cirrhosis patients taking statins, HR 0.69
My take: In adults with cirrhosis, particularly HBV-related and HCV-related, taking a statin was associated with a 50-60% lower likelihood of decompensation. A prospective study could confirm these findings.
When I read a recent Hepatology editorial (Hepatology 2015; 61: 1106-8), I could not help think of the aforementioned title of this blog.
Here’s the scoop:
The two most commonly used medications for Wilson’s disease are trientine (Syprine) and D-penicillamine (Cupramine). For about 20 years, the original manufacturer of these medications kept the consumer cost at ~$1 per 250 mg tablet. Currently the cost of Syprine is ~$200 per 250 mg tablet and Cuprimine costs ~$55 per 250 mg tablet. This 200-fold increase translates into a yearly cost of ~$300,000.
How did this happen?
Patients are reluctant to protest (they need this medication to be manufactured)
Why is this outrageous?
This increase in cost was not driven by any new discovery or research innovation.
Are there options?
Zinc is inexpensive and may be an option after initial period of chelation/normalization of liver biochemistries. Zinc needs to be taken two to three times per day and “well away from meals for best absorption.”
Bottomline: These medication prices are outrageous.
“Molecular pathophysiology of portal hypertension” Hepatology 2015; 61: 1406-15. Terrific review with excellent figures.
“Ezetimibe for the treatment of Nonacloholic Steatohepatitis” (MOZART trial) Hepatology 2015; 61: 1239-50. This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 50 patients (biopsy-proven NASH) showed that Ezetimbe was not significantly different from placebo in histologic response rates, serum aminotransferases, or in magnetic resonance elastography findings.
Van Biervliet et al. “Clinical Zinc Deficiency as Early Presentation of Wilson Disease” JPGN 2015; 60: 457-9. Case report.
A recent publication (J Pediatr 2014; 165: 539-546) from the Childhood Liver Disease Research and Education Network (CHiLDREN) provides a strong rationale for close followup of biliary atresia (BA) patients with their native livers. The Biliary Atresia Study of Infants and Children (BASIC) is one of the ongoing longitudinal studies within CHiLDREN.
Among a cross-sectional study BASIC cohort of 219 children (median age 9.7 years) who survived with their native livers for at least 5 years, they had the following findings:
In preceding 12 months, cholangitis occurred in 17%, and 62% had experienced cholangitis at least once following hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE) (also called Kasai procedure. The authors note wide discrepancy in usage of prophylactic antibiotics; some stop at 2 years following HPE and some never stop antibiotic prophylaxis.
In preceding 12 months, bone fractures occurred in 5.5%. Overall, 15% had had at least one bone fracture at some point, which is higher than the general population. Only 14.6% of entire cohort were receiving vitamin D supplementation.
Portal hypertension: clinically detectable splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, ascites, and variceal hemorrhage were seen in 56%, 43%, 17%, and 9% of patients in this cohort.
Health-related quality of life was reported as normal in 53%
Mean height and weight z-scores were normal in this cohort.
Over 98% had clinical or biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease.
Bottomline: This BASIC study shows the need for careful followup of “successful” biliary atresia patients and provides more accurate data regarding risks of specific complications.
Briefly noted: J Pediatr 2014; 165: 547-55. In this study with same first author (Vicky Ng), the investigators develop and validate a pediatric liver transplantation (LT) quality of live instrument for LT patients aged 8-18 years.
A useful review of “pulmonary complications in chronic liver disease” (Hepatology 2014; 59: 1627-37) has been published.
The main topics included hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) , portopulmonary hypertension (POPH), and hepatic hydrothorax (HH).
A few of the key points:
HPS is most common of these conditions and is identified in 5-30% of cirrhosis patients. It is identified with abnormal oxygenation (screening with pulse ox <96%) due to intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. There is no established medical therapy. It is reversible with liver transplantation.
The hallmark of POPH is the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with portal hypertension. It occurs in 5-10% of cirrhosis patients and often presents as dyspnea on exertion/fatigue. There are numerous pharmacologic treatments that may be useful, include the following:
prostacyclin analogs like epoprostenol
endothelin receptor antagonists like boesentan
phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors like sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil
Severe POPH is a relative contraindication for liver transplantation.
HH is a transudative pleural effusion seen in 5-10% of cirrhosis patients. Initial management includes salt restriction and diuretics. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and thoracentesis are second-line options. Liver transplantation is curative.
Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician. This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.
A consensus report on portal hypertension has helpful advice on a broad range of management issues and should be kept in mind as a handy reference (Pediatr Transplantation 2012; 16: 426-37). The report is concise and full of bullet points. It is based on a meeting of pediatric experts to modify adult guidelines (Baveno V) for pediatrics.
In many instances, the experts indicate that there is not enough pediatric data. Specific subjects include the following (along with some points):
Treatment options for portal hypertension -consider screening for varices if thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. ‘No indication to use beta-blockers to prevent varices.’
Prevention of first bleeding episode -in the presence of varices (grade II or III), variceal ligation reasonable in selected children and/or within context of defined research protocols. Grade I varices can be flattened with insufflation, and grade III varices are confluent around circumference of esophagus (per Japanese Research Society for Portal HTN analysis)
Role of hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement (HVPG) -‘panel was undecided as to whether HVPG measurements in children’ should be ‘part of specialized clinical practice or’ a research tool.
Blood volume restitution -suggests use of platelets in cases of bleeding with profound thrombocytopenia (<20,000).
Antibiotic prophylaxis -unclear whether empiric antibiotics in children are needed in the presence of variceal bleeding.
Management of treatment failures -can retry endoscopy and if fails, consider transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS)
Management of gastric varices -only case reports in children, thus no evidence-based recommendations.
Prevention of rebleeding -variceal ligation (EVL) preferred in patients with cirrhosis. EVL should be performed every 2-4 weeks up to five sessions to eradicate varices after 1st bleed.
Treatment of portal vein obstruction -diagnosis, natural history, anticoagulation, use of MesoRex bypass procedure, associated portal biliopathy -diagnosis and treatment. With regard to MesoRex, ‘controversy exists as to the appropriateness of ..this procedure in an asymptomatic child.’ Surveillance endoscopy may assist in decision-making.
Hypersplenism with portal vein obstruction-in the presence of platelet count <50,000 and portal vein obstruction, strong consideration should be given to MesoRex procedure.
Portopulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome -important to monitor oxygen saturation in patients with portal vein obstruction/other causes of portal hypertension. If <97%, additional investigation may be needed. Portopulmonary hypertension is best characterized with cardiac catheterization and hepatopulmonary syndrome with saline echocardiography.
Other topics: Prevention of hepatic encephalopathy, managing bleeding episodes, endoscopic treatment