E Cowell et al. JPGN 2019; 68: 695-99. This study reviewed 61 cases of pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma to determine predisposing conditions (in Houston TX). The majority did NOT have recognizable predisposing conditions. 25 of 61 (41%) had a predisposing condition including cryptogenic cirrhosis/steatosis (9), genetic (7), biliary pathology (4), viral hepatitis (1), and other (4). Those without a recognizable predisposing condition were diagnosed later and with more advanced disease/decreased survival.
VA McLin et al. JPGN 2019; 68: 615-22. Useful review on congenital portosystemic shunts.
DE Kaplan et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 156: 1693-1706. This large study form the VA with more than 70,000 patients examined the relationship between statin exposure and survival in patients with cirrhosis. “Each cumulative year of statin exposure was associated with an independent 8-8.7% decrease of mortality of patients with cirrhosis of Child-Turcotte-Pugh classes A and B.”
AG Singal et al. Gastroenterol 2019; 156: 1683-1692. Direct-acting antiviral therapy was not associated with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a multicenter cohort study with 793 patients with HCV-associated HCC. Thus, DAAs appear safe in patients who have achieved a complete response to HCC Rx
There have been a number of studies suggesting a beneficial effect of statins for individuals chronic liver disease due to HBV infection, HCV infection, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The potential reasons include lower portal hypertension due to increased nitric oxide availability, anti-inflammatory effects through reduction in some cytokines, and antifibrotic effects. In addition, statins may inhibit tumor initiation/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
The background on these prior studies is detailed in a new population-based study (F-M Chang et al Hepatology 2017; 66: 896-907, editorial 697-9) of statins in patients with cirrhosis. In this nested case-control study from Taiwan, the authors examined patients (n=1350) with cirrhosis from 2000 to 2013. The index cases of cirrhosis were identified among a representative, well-validated general population database of 1,000,000 people.
- “Statin use decreased the risk of decompensation, mortality, and HCC in a dose-dependent manner.”
- Risk of decompensation among chronic HBV statin users, HR 0.39
- Risk of decompensation among chronic HCV statin users, HR 0.51
- Risk of decompensation among alcohol-related cirrhosis patients taking statins, HR 0.69
My take: In adults with cirrhosis, particularly HBV-related and HCV-related, taking a statin was associated with a 50-60% lower likelihood of decompensation. A prospective study could confirm these findings.
Prague -Charles Bridge