What are the changes in Rome IV for children and adolescents? JS Hyams, C DiLorenzo et al (Gastroenterol 2016; 150: 1456-68) provide a helpful review.
The ‘dictum’ that there was “no evidence for organic disease” as an criteria for functional disorders has been dropped in favor of “after appropriate medical evaluation the symptoms cannot be attributed to another medical condition.” This subtle change discourages excessive investigations.
The functional disorders covered in this article include
- H1 Functional nausea and vomiting disorders: H1a -cyclic vomiting syndrome, H1b -functional nausea and vomiting (NEW), H1c -rumination syndrome, H1d -aerophagia
- H2 Functional abdominal pain disorders: H2a -functional dyspepsia, H2b -irritable bowel syndrome, H2c -abdominal migraine, H2d -functional abdominal pain -not otherwise specified
- H3 Functional defecation disorders: H3a -functional constipation, H3b -nonretentive fecal incontinence
- “There are no published data on the treatment of isolated functional nausea and isolated functional vomiting”
- “We have eliminated the requirement of pain to fulfill the criteria for FD” [functional dyspepsia]
- Criteria for cyclic vomiting and abdominal migraines now require only 2 episodes in a 6 month period
- Criteria for functional constipation requires only 1 month rather than 2 months (this is true for H3b as well). The authors endorsed the NASPGHAN expert guidelines which included “no role for routine use of an abdominal x-ray to diagnose FC.” The guideline discourages testing for cow’s milk allergy, hypothyroidism, celiac disease and hypercalcemia in the absence of alarm symptoms.
In a separate article, MA Benninga, S Nurko et al (Gastroenterol 2016; 150: 1443-55) describe the functional disorders affecting infants and toddlers.
In my view, the article in this special edition that incorporates the most changes regards functional disorders of the biliary tree (FGBD) (PB Cotton et al Gastroenterol 2016; 150: 1420-29). This is mainly due to data showing that sphincterotomy is no better than sham treatment for patients with post-cholecystectomy pain. “The concept of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction type III is discarded.” In addition, for biliary pain/’gallbladder dyskinesia,’ the authors also acknowledge that the role of obtaining a gallbladder ejection fraction is “controversial.” “Symptoms suggestive of FGBD often resolve spontaneously so that early intervention is unwarranted.” Ultimately, the authors state that “treatment recommendations are not firmly evidence-based.”
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