Proton pump inhibitors–infection risk with cirrhosis

In a previous post (The Medical Pendulum and Gastroesophageal Reflux), I note that enthusiasm for proton pump inhibitors has started to wane.  In addition, a significant number of reported of potential side effects were referenced.  Another potential adverse effect is increasing the rate of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012; 10: 422-27).

This retrospective study examined 65 hospitalized cirrhotic patients with paracentesis-proven SBP between 2006-2009 and compared them to 65 contemporaneous hospitalized cirrhotic patients without SBP.   Patients with SBP had a higher incidence of use of PPI within previous 7 days: 71% versus 42%.  Of patients with SBP receiving PPI, the authors state that 68% did not have a documented indication for PPI use.

Additional references/previous posts:

  • Treating reflux does not help asthma
  • -Risk of Hypomagnesemmia -2011.
  • Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 1115.  Review of safety of PPIs.
  • Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 93. n=167,000. PPIs associated with hip fracture risk, OR 1.3, in patients with other risk factors.
  • Gastroenterology 2010; 138: 896-904. 5 yrs of PPI -no increase risk in hip/spine fx.
  • Arch Intern Med 2010; 170: 765-71, 747 (ed). PPI not related to hip fx (n=161,806) women 50-79. INCREASE risk of spine fx, hazard risk 1.47
  • Arch Intern Med 2010; 170: 772-8. PPIs increase risk of Clostridium difficile infection (hazard ratio 1.42 –42% increase in risk), n=1166.
  • Arch Intern Med 2010; 170: 784-90. n=101,796. OR 1.74 for daily PPI, OR 2.36 if BID Rx; thus ~70% increase risk of nosocomial infection.
  • Clin Gastro & Hep 2010; 8: 504. Increased bacterial overgrowth with PPI use.
  • -JAMA 2009; 301: 2120-2128. Use of PPIs associated with INCREASED hospital acquired pneumonia by ~30%. Could result in 180,000 HAP cases/yr with ~33,000 deaths. n+ 63,878 admissions, 52% on PPIs or H2RAs (83% PPIs, 17% H2RAs). H2RAs NOT associated with HAP cases.

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