Liver Shorts -May 2020 & CDC Recommendations for Office (NY Times Summary)

NY Times:  C.D.C. Recommends Sweeping Changes to American Offices


FDA Approves Hepatitis C Pangenomic Treatment for Children (Mar 19, 2020):

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved a supplemental application for Epclusa (sofosbuvir and velpatasvir) to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) in children ages 6 years and older or weighing at least 37 pounds (17 kilograms) with any of the six HCV genotypes—or strains—without cirrhosis (liver disease) or with mild cirrhosis.

Review: NAFLD in China 1999-2018 J Zhou et al. Hepatology 2020; 71: 1851-4.

  • NALFD increased by 8-9% in prevalence, to 29.1%.  This means there are more than 230 million individuals with NAFLD in China.

Use of HCV-positive donors for liver transplantation to HCV-negative recipients. N Anwar et al. Liver Transplantation 2020; 26: 673-80. Key finding: HCV-positive organs had similar outcomes regarding graft function, patient survival and post-LT complications.

Recent Decline in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Rates in U.S. MS Shiels, TR O’Brien. Gastroenterol 2020; 158: 1503-5. Using SEER-21 population based cancer registries covering 37% of U.S. population, the authors found a recent decline in rates of HCC:

  • 2000-2016: 119,078 cases of HCC in SEER-21 registries, 5.84/100,000
  • Rates increased b 5.6% per year from 2000-2007, then by 2.7% per year from 2007 to 2013, subsequent rate reached a plateau and declined with drop of 1.4% per year (P=.12)
  • Improvement could have been due in part to improvement in viral hepatitis treatment; a less favorable explanation could be that the drop occured due to a death from another cause (eg. non-HCC death due to cirrhosis, opioid-related death

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Potential Treatment for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis N Chalasani et al. Gastroenterol 2020; 158: 1334-45. The study explored the use of Belapectin, an inhibitor of Galectin-3, in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. n=162, phase 2 randomized, double-blind study. Key finding: 1 year of every 2 week infusions were safe but not associated with significant reductions in hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) or fibrosis. However, in a subgroup without varices, there was lowered HVPG and lowered risk of new varices.

Treatment Options for Minimal Hepatic EncephalopathyRK Dhiman et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepato 2020; 18: 800-12.  This meta-analysis which included 25 trials (n=1563) found the following:

  • For reversing minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), rifaximin (OR 7.53) and lactulose  (OR 5.39) were effective with moderate quality evidence.  Probiotics had OR 3.89 and L-ornithine L-aspartate had OR 4.45 —both with low quality evidence.
  • For prevention of HE, L-ornithine L-aspartate had OR 0.19 (‘high moderate’ quality), and lactulose had OR 0.22 (moderate quality) were effective. Probiotics had OR 0.27 with low quality evidence.
  • The authors conlude that lactulose is the most effective agent for prevention and reversal of MHE.

Related blog posts:

 

Curbside Humor

 

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