About two years ago, James Franciosi presented research at NASPGHAN meeting indicating that the main difference between children with eosiniophilic esophagitis (EoE) who respond to proton pump inhibitiors (PPIs) compared to those who do not was related to their metabolism of PPIs and not related to the nature of their underlying EoE.
Related blog: #NASPGHAN17 Eosionophilic Esophagitis Session
Now, more has been published on this topic: EB Mougey et al. JPGN 2019; 69: 581-7.
In this study with 92 patients, data was collected from participants in a prospective clinical trial of high-dose PPI for EoE.
- 57 (62%) were responsive to PPIs and 35 (38%) were not responsive to PPIs
- Carriage of STAT6 allele variant rs1059513 predicted responsiveness to PPIs with OR of 6.16
- Carriage of STAT6 rs324011 synergizes with CYP2C19*17 to predict PPI-nonresponsive EoE
- Carriers of CYP2C19*17 are more likely to fail PPIs for EoE. Children with CYP2C19*17 gain of function “have a 7.7 fold better odds of failing PPI therapy” than noncarriers.
- CYP2C19*17 effects “appears to be exerted within a specific range of PPI doses…and does not appear to exert influence at the low and high ends of this dose range.”
- STAT6, which in this study is a cofactor, “upregulates transcription of CCL26 (eostaxin-3) 53-fold in esophageal eosinophilia relative to levels in peptic esophagitis and 490-fold over levels found in normal esophageal biopsies.”
- PPIs effectiveness “does not correlate with esophageal” acid exposure; thus, its effects are mediated via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.
My take: This study indicates that genotype-guided dosing of PPIs for the treatment of EoE is likely to be worthwhile.