IBD Shorts: September 2019

S Olivia et al (including Stanley Cohen from GI Care for Kids) Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 2060-7.A Treat to Target Strategy Using Panenteric Capsule Endoscopy in Pediatric Patients with Crohn’s Disease”  In this prospective study with 48 children with Crohn’s disease, pan-enteric capsule endoscopy (PCE) detected inflammation in 34 (71%) at baseline, 22 (46%) at week 24, and 18 (39%) at week 52.  PCE results were used to manage treatment and resulted in change in therapy in 71% at baseline and 23% at week 24.  Furthermore, PCE increased the proportions of patients in deep remission, up to 58% at week 52.

M Wright, et al. J Pediatr 2019; 210: 220-5. This case report of a 4 year-old boy with a perianal abscess and granulomatous colitis identified a NCF4 mutation causing severe neutrophil dysfunction.  He developed osteomyelitis with anti-TNF therapy and did not respond to vedolizumab. He had an excellent outcome following a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reinforces the potential benefit of investigating VEO-IBD which could allow more targeted therapy. Related blog post:

P Zapater et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019; 25: 1357-66. This study with 112 patients with Crohn’s disease showed that serum interleukin-10 levels were directly related to infliximab and adalimumab levels.  This suggests that serum anti-TNF levels are significantly influenced by immunological activation.

JE Axelrad et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 1311-22.  This study, using the Swedish National Patient Register, showed that gastrointestinal infection increased the odds of developing IBD in a nationwide case-control study.  “Of the patients with IBD, 3105 (7%) had a record of previous gastroenteritis compared with 17,685 control subjects (4.1%). IBD cases had higher odds for an antecedent episode of gastrointestinal infection (aOR 1.64), bacterial gastrointestinal infection (aOR 2.02) and viral gastrointestinal infection (aOR 1.55)…a previous episode of gastroenteriitis remained associated with odds for IBD more than 10 years later (aOR 1.26).”  The authors note that they cannot formally exclude misclassification bias, but it appears that enteric infections contribute to the development of IBD in susceptible individuals.