New Paradigm in Treating Varices and Cirrhosis Management (in Adults)

2021 Halloween Pics:

G Garcia-Tsao, JG Abraldes. Gastroenterol 2021; 161: 770-773. Open Access: Nonselective Beta-Blockers in Compensated Cirrhosis: Preventing Variceal Hemorrhage or Preventing Decompensation?

Key points:

  • Carvedilol (not approved in children) is a NSBB that has additional α1 adrenergic blocking activity that enhances the portal pressure–reducing effect, compared to other NSBBs (eg. nadolol, propranolol).
  • New paradigm focuses on “the most relevant end point in compensated cirrhosis…development of decompensation”  (ascites, variceal hemorrhage, and/or hepatic encephalopathy).
  • In the PREDESCI study with 201 patients with compensated cirrhosis and CSPH, with no or small varices, to NSBBs or placebo…”clinical decompensation, was significantly lower in the NSBB arm than in the placebo arm (from 27% to 17% over a median follow-up of 37 months: HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26–0.97)”
  • This model favors carvedilol over endoscopic variceal ligation; the “only RCT of carvedilol vs EVL in the prevention of first variceal hemorrhage showed a survival benefit of carvedilol over EVL.” Carvediol has been associated with improved survival in patients with cirrhosis (McDowell H.R. et al. Carvedilol is associated with improved survival in patients with cirrhosis: a long-term follow-up study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2021; 5: 531-539)
  • This model “consists of identifying those with CSPH (by means of noninvasive methods) and treating them with carvedilol, with the goal of preventing any decompensating event (not only variceal hemorrhage).”
  • Screening endoscopy would still be recommended in newly-diagnosed decompensated cirrhosis and those intolerant to NSBBs.

My take: This new paradigm is one approach for portal hypertension in adults. More studies are needed in the pediatric age group to help determine whether medical therapy can obviate the need for EVL in most children with cirrhosis.

Whereas the existing paradigm focuses on the use of NSBBs for the prevention of variceal bleeding, in the new paradigm the presence of CSPH [clinically significant portal hypertension ](determined noninvasively) establishes the indication for NSBBs with the goal of preventing cirrhosis decompensation. CSPH, clinically significant portal hypertension; EVL, endoscopic variceal ligation; NSBB, nonselective beta-blocker; LS, liver stiffness; PLT, platelet count. ∗Patients with LS <20 kPa and PLT >150,000/mm3 can circumvent endoscopy because the risk of having high-risk varices is minimal

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Liver Briefs -June 2019

YH Yeo et al. Hepatology 2019; 69: 1385-97.  The prevalence of high risk individuals in the U.S. who are susceptible (not immune) to hepatitis B has decreased from 83% to 69% from 2003 to 2014.  That still leaves 64 million who would benefit from HBV vaccination.

M Sharma et al. Hepatology 2019; 69: 1657-75. This meta-analysis compared therapies for primary prevention of esophageal varices and concluded that nonselective beta-blocker (NSBB) monotherapy may decrease all-cause mortality and carried a lower risk of serious complications than variceal band ligation (VBL). However, the commentary (1382-84 by L Laine) reaches a different conclusion. “Current recommendations for primary prevention with VBL or NSBB or carvediolo still appear to be acceptable…using a shared decision-making approach” to weigh issue such as daily medication or periodic endoscopy.

J Nguyen et al. J Pediatr 2019; 207: 90-6. This study modeled the cost-effectiveness of early treatment with direct-acting antiviral therapy in adolescents with hepatitis C infection.  With pangenotypic agenst, the cost would be $10000 to $21000 per QALY gained.

S Trinh et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 17: 948-56. This retrospective hepatitis B study examined the changes in renal function between 239 tenofovir disoproxil fumarte (TDF) treated patients and 171 entecavir treated patients.  Key finding: TDF was not associated with higher risk of worsening renal function in this cohort with a mean followup of 43-46 months in patients with baseline normal renal function.  In patients with renal impairment, deterioration of renal function was noted in TDF-treated patients.  Thus, TDF should be avoided in patients with impaired renal function.


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