Vaccine hesitancy, which can prolong the pandemic, is a textbook example of a negativeconsumption externality, where an individual’s choice can harm or impose costs on others. Indoor smoking, drunk driving, or littering are other examples…
One policy option is to use the insurance mechanism, with risk assessment and risk pricing as its enforcing arms….
For example, a risky driver has a higher auto insurance premium than a safe driver, a smoker has a higher health insurance premium than a non-smoker,…Similarly, health insurance premiums, deductibles, and co-pays can be set higher for those who are unvaccinated...
Using risk pricing to set insurance premiums and co-pays for these individuals makes goodsense and is fair policy. It incentivizes individuals to vaccinate, while also providing a fairer insurance pricing system by charging those with self-selected higher risk a higher price, instead of shifting their medical costs to others through uniform insurance pricing.
Among 172 549 apparently healthy children from a retrospective database, the incidence of 30-day mortality, postoperative complications, and serious adverse events were 0.02%, 13.9%, and 5.7%, respectively. Compared with their white peers, AA children had 3.43 times the odds of dying within 30 days after surgery (odds ratio: 3.43; 95% CI: 1.73–6.79)
At age 6 to 7 years, compared with those with a healthy weight, children with overweight had higher metabolic syndrome risk scores by 0.23 SD units (95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.41) and with obesity by 0.76 SD units (0.51–1.01), with associations almost doubling by age 10 to 11 years. Thus, overweight and obesity from early childhood onward were strongly associated with higher cardiometabolic risk at 11 to 12 years of age.
In addition, obesity but not overweight had slightly higher outcome carotid intima-media thickness (0.20–0.30 SD units) at all ages