Myth or Fact: Joint Hypermobility is Related to Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain & Dr. Roy Link

According to a recent study (RJ Shulman et al. J Pediatri 2020; 222: 134-40), the prevalence of joint hypermobility does NOT differ in children with irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pain, or healthy control children.

Methods (to reach this conclusion):

  • Children (median age ~9.5 years) with irritable bowel syndrome (n=109), functional abdominal pain (n=31), and healthy controls (n=69) completed a prospective 2-week pain and stooling diaries.  In addition, children and parents reported on measures of anxiety, depression, and somatization. Children were recruited from both primary care and tertiary care settings
  • Joint hypermobility was determined using Beighton criteria using a goniometer and examined cutoffs at both ≥4 or ≥6).

Key findings:

  • Beighton scores were similar between the groups, as was the proportion with joint hypermobility.  Beighton scores were not related to abdominal pain or stooling characteristics.
  • Beighton score ≥4: IBS 35%, FAP 36%, healthy controls 36%.
  • Beighton score ≥6: IBS 12%, FAP 13%, healthy controls 9%.
  • Children reported depression more frequently in those with Beighton scores ≥6 and somatization was greater in those with a score ≥4.

Discussion:

  • “It is well-recognized that patients with joint hypermobility syndromes (eg, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan) commonly have GI symptoms.” However, joint hypermobility is common —in this study’s healthy control group 36% had a score ≥4 and 9% had a score ≥6.
  • This study is in agreement with a school-based study (n=136) (M Saps et al. JPGN 2018; 66: 387-90).
  • Limitations: This study population had a median age of ~9.5 years; thus, these findings need to be determined in an older children

My take: There does not appear to be an increased risk of functional GI disorders in children with joint hypermobility. Thus, looking for joint laxity/hypermobility in children with abdominal pain is not needed.

Related blog posts:

Also, a link to Dr. Roy (Benaroch).  Roy is an Atlanta pediatrician and he explains, with the help of Batman and Luigi, the term ‘index’ case and when one is considered exposed: Dr. Roy Covid Pathway

NASPGHAN Postgraduate Course 2017 (Part 5): Refractory constipation, Extraesophageal GERD, POTS, Recurrent Abdominal Pain

This blog entry has abbreviated/summarized these presentations. Though not intentional, some important material is likely to have been omitted; in addition, transcription errors are possible as well.

Here is a link to postgraduate course syllabus: NASPGHAN PG Syllabus – 2017

The child with refractory constipation

Jose Garza   GI Care for Kids & Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta

Key points:

  • Polyethylene glycol is a first-line agent and many patients require cleanout at start of therapy
  • Adequate dose of laxative is needed for sure regular painless stools
  • Don’t stop medicines before toilet training and until pattern of regular stooling established. “All symptoms of constipation should resolve for at least one month before discontinuation of treatment”
  • Gradually reduce laxatives when improved
  • An abdominal xray is NOT recommended to make the diagnosis of constipation
  • Do you have the right diagnosis? Irritable bowel is often confused with constipation.  With constipation, the pain is relieved after resolution of constipation.
  • Outlet dysfunction. Stimulant laxatives (eg. Senna) are probably underutilized. Biofeedback may help in older children.
  • Slow transit constipation. Newer prosecretory agents may be helpful –lubiprostone and linaclotide.
  • Organic constipation. Hirschsprung’s, Spina bifida, anorectal malformations etc. Testing: anorectal manometry, rectal biopsy (for Hirschsprung’s)
  • For refractory disease, consider rectal therapy –suppositories, transanal irritagations/enemas (~78% success for fecal incontinence/constipation). These treatments should be used prior to surgical therapy (eg. Malone antegrade continence enema/cecostomy)

 

 

The quest for the holy grail: Accurately diagnosing and treating extraesophageal reflux

Rachel Rosen   Boston Children’s Hospital

Key points:

  • It is frequent that EGD or impedance study will be abnormal, though this may not be causally-related.
  • No correlation with ENT exams/red airways and reflux parameters
  • No correlation with lipid laden macrophages and reflux parameters
  • No correlation with salivary pepsin and reflux parameters

Treatment:

  • Lansoprazole was not effective for colic or extraesophageal symptoms (Orenstein et al J Pediatrics 2009)
  • PPIs can increase risk of pneumonia/respiratory infections
  • Macrolides have been associated with increased risk of asthma but may be helpful for pulmonary symptoms
  • Fundoplication has not been shown to be effective for reducing aspiration pneumonia.  Fundoplication could increase risk due to worsened esophageal drainage.
  • ALTEs (BRUEs -brief resolved undefined events) need swallow study NOT PPIs

POTS and Joint Hypermobility: what do they have to do with functional abdominal pain?

Miguel Saps  University of Miami

Key points:

  • Patients with POTS and joint hypermobility have frequent functional abdominal pain as well as other comorbidities
  • Beighton Score can determine if joint hypermobility is present
  • Brighton Score determines if hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is present
  • Patients with frequent fatigue.  Gradual progressive and regular exercise is important part of therapy.  Can start with recombant exercise – training bicycle exercise, swimming
  • Need to push salt intake and fluds

Do I need to test that C.R.A.P.?

Rina Sanghavi   Children’s Medical Center Dallas

This basic talk reviewed a broad range of issues related to functional abdominal pain.

Key points:

  • Carnett’s sign can help establish abdominal pain as due to abdominal wall pain rather than visceral pain
  • What is an appropriate evaluation?  Limited diagnostic testing for most patients.
  • Alarm symptoms include: Fevers, Nocturnal diarrhea, Dysphagia, Significant vomiting, Weight Loss/poor growth, Delayed Puberty, and Family history of IBD