For many participants at NASPGHAN, the “year in review” presentations are a highlight. This year was no exception.
This blog entry has abbreviated/summarized this presentation. Though not intentional, some important material is likely to have been omitted; in addition, transcription errors are possible as well.
William Balistreri –Clinical Science Year in Review
Lay press remains excellent source of information.
Benefit of microbiome. (from NPR) Now there is elephant poop coffee -$645/lb ($70/cup). Link: No. 1 Most Expensive Coffee Comes From Elephant’s No. 2 : The ... Collecting elephant poop is probably a less ideal job than what most of us have. As for coffee, “make mine de-crap.”
Topic of the year: Hepatitis C
- 25 years since identification of Hepatitis C in 1989
- Now approaching cure (Related blog post: Wiping out Hepatitis C | gutsandgrowth). All-oral highly effective regimen –newest regimen as easy as one pill per day for 8-12 weeks. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Moving past 1st generation of DAAs: telaprevir/boceprevir with interferon/ribavirin.(refs = Pawlotsky, Gastroenterology 146:1176, 2014 and Schmidt, Clinical Gastroent Hepatol 12:728, 2014)
- New drugs for HCV –just in time –increasing risk of HCV complications. Ann Intern Med 2014; 160: 293.
- Goal –SVR –sustained virological response
- Reviewed large number of articles: Sofosbuvir, Simeprevir, Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir (Harvoni). 3-D regimen: ABT-450, ABT-267, ABT-333 –will be approved in coming weeks (Related blog post:Have You Heard of Harvoni? | gutsandgrowth)
- Gane, NEJM 368:34, 2013
- Zeuzem, NEJM 370:1993,2014
- Kowdley, N Engl J Med 370:1879, 2014
- Lawitz, Lancet 383:515, 2014
- Feld, New England Journal of Medicine, 370:1594, 2014
- Mild side effects with newer drug therapies
- Awaiting pediatric studies.
- Costly $1000/pill –“if dog swallows it,” may have to look for it in the stool
- Stay updated with recommendations: www.hcvguidelines.org (AASLD/IDSA)
Hepatitis B –success of vaccination.
- Preventing perinatal transmission with HBIG/vaccine. JAMA 2013; 310: 974. Those born after 1984, with much lower HCC. Ann Intern Med 2014; 160: 828; Hepatology 2014; 60: 448
- Give antivirals (eg. telbivudine) for HBeAg-positive mothers prior to delivery. (Related blog post: Hepatology Update -Summer 2014 | gutsandgrowth) Greenup, Journ of Hepatology 61:502, 2014 AND Zhang, Hepatology 60:468, 2014
- Antiviral therapy lowers the risk of HCC. Hepatology 2014; 147: 143 (Wu et al).
- Make sure children with IBD are being screened for hepatitis B. ~13% may not be immune. Moses, Am J Gastro 107:133, 2012
Trend of the Year: Social Media
- Genome sequencing –tremendous advance. Families may push for this option on their own.
- Magnets –banned. Social media allowed this problem to be quickly identified. (Related blog post: Buckyball Recall –It’s Official | gutsandgrowth)
- Social media allows family to share information and get answers. Internet blogging allows families to reach out to scientists.
- Schumacher, Pediatrics 133:e1345, 2014
- Enns, Genetics in Medicine, March 2014
- BiliCam –can take picture with mobile phones.
- Steroids not helpful post-Kasai. JAMA 2014; 311: 1750. N=140. START study. Higher rate of adverse events in steroid recipients.
- Low serum sodium levels are marker for mortality on waiting list Pugliese, HEPATOLOGY 59:1964, 2014
- Related blog post: START Study: Steroids Not Effective For Biliary Atresia (After …
Threat of the Year: Obesity along with NAFLD
- NAFLD can have significant liver histologic abnormalities even with normal ALT levels. J Pediatr 2014; 164: 707.
- Clinical burden of NAFLD is not restricted to liver-related morbidity or mortality Armstrong, HEPATOLOGY 59:1174, 2014. Also, concern for obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Sundaram, J Pediatr 164:699, 2014. Pacifico, HEPATOLOGY 59:461, 2014
- Elastography is promising tool. Xanthakos, J Peds 164:186, 2014
- Current treatment –lifestyle changes. Snacking contributes to fatty liver. Sleep curtailment is associated with obesity. Spaeth. SLEEP 36:981, 2013, Taveras, Pediatrics 133:1013, 2014, Mitchell, Pediat 131:e1428, 2013
- Increased antibiotics in early life associated with obesity due to alteration of microbiome. Bailey, JAMA Pediatrics, Sept 29, 2014
- Suggestion for future: “Diet Water.”
For those who want to learn more from Dr. Balistreri directly, I would recommend the Aspen Conference: