Nutrition Module

More notes from this year’s postgraduate course:

Clinical issues in parenteral nutritionPraveen S. Goday, MBBS, CNSC (page 105)

  • Fish‐oil vs minimizing soybean oil‐based lipid emulsions
  • Catheter‐related bloodstream infections (CRBSI): Ethanol locks “Humans like ethanol and bacterial don’t.”  Meta‐analysis:  In comparison with heparin locks, ETOH locks (various regimens) reduced the following: a) CRBSI‐rate per 1000 catheter days by 7.67 events (81% ↓)  b) catheter replacements by 5.07 (72% ↓), c) 108‐150 catheter days of ETOH lock exposure were necessary to prevent 1 CRBSI, d) Adverse events – rare and included thrombotic events.  Reference: Oliveira et al. Pediatrics 2012;129:318–329

Parenteral Drug Shortages: All PN products except dextrose and water have been in short supply at some point since spring 2010

Imported components from Europe (higher cost)

• Peditrace™ – zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, fluoride, and iodine

• Addamel N™ – zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, fluoride, and iodine, molybdenum, iron, and chromium

Summary / Take‐home points

  • Reduction in soybean oil emulsion or provision of fish oil emulsion results in improvement in cholestasis
  • Ethanol lock therapy decreases CRBSI in children on home PN
  • Significant PN shortages have affected our ability to care for our PN patients; thus need vigilance and good communication between physician, dietitian and pharmacist

Severe Obesity in Your Clinic: The disconnect between the epidemic and the intervention Sarah E. Barlow, MD, MPH (page 125)

What to do for obesity?

  • Behavior modification
  • Pharmacotherapy (and behavior modification)
  1. Orlistat (Xenical, Alli) -Enteric lipase inhibitor, FDA approved starting at age 12 years (OTC $200 per month)
  2. Approved for adults Lorcaserin (Belviq): 5-HT2C agonist
  3. Approved for adults: phentermine and topirimate (Qsymia)
  • Surgery (and behavior modification)
  • Meal replacement (and behavior modification)

Orlistat trial for adolescent obesity:

  • 54 week double-blind RCT
  • 539 subjects: 12 to 16 years of age, BMI 36 ±  4 kg/m2
  • BMI change kg/m2 (mean):  – .55  vs. + 0.31 for control
  • Fecal urgency (%) 20.7 (11.0 in controls)
  • Flatulence (%) 9.1 (4.4 in controls)
  • Fecal incontinence (%) 8.8 (0.6 in controls)
  • Reference: Chanoine et al. JAMA 2005;293:2873

Orlistat meta-analysis among adults :

  • -2.87 kg [95CI -3.21, -2.53] = placebo-subtracted change at 1 year
  • Reference  Rucker D. BMJ 2007;225:1194

Multiple potential medications are being studied

Selection criteria for adolescent bariatric surgery

  • Tanner stage IV or V
  • BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 with severe
  • Comorbidity or BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 with comorbidity
  • “Have failed” 6 month of organized attempts at weight loss
  • Committed to pre and post medical and psychological care
  • Supportive family
  • Able to give informed assent
  • Frequent barriers: Distance from center, Insurance, Age, Reluctance
  • Reference: Pratt Obesity 2009;17:901

Complications from Surgery

  • For all procedures: nutritional deficiencies, especially iron, vitamins B12, D, and thiamine
  • For gastric bypass: postprandial hypoglycemia in adults
  • For lap band: need for re-operation for slippage or erosion in adults and small adolescent study.
  • Also pouch dilatation
  • For sleeve gastrectomy: leak or bleeding along suture site


  1. 4% of children 6 to 19 are severely obese
  2. Severe obesity leads to high levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors, NAFLD, OSA, and pre-diabetes
  3. Behavior modification has modest efficacy, is a partner in all other intensive interventions, but is not readily available behavior modification is underutilized because it is time-intensive and resource-intensive.  It it is necessary even though it is not sufficient.
  4. Orlistat is the only medication currently available for adolescents.

 5 2 1 0

  • 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day
  • 2 hours or less of screen time
  • 1 hour (60 minutes) or more of physical activity
  • 0 sugar-sweetened beverages

Postgraduate Course Syllabus (posted with permission): PG Syllabus

Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) and specific medical interventions should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  Application of the information in a particular situation remains the professional responsibility of the practitioner.

More on ethanol locks

In a post earlier this week (Four advances for intestinal failure), ethanol locks were discussed.  More on information this subject (Pediatrics 2012: 129: 318-29) comes in a meta-analysis.  These authors identified 4 retrospective studies in pediatric IF populations.  Ethanol locks reduced infections by 81% and line replacements by 72%.  The studies in this meta-analysis overlapped with the six studies cited in the previous post.  Adverse events were rare and included thrombotic events.

Additional reference:

  • -JPEN 2012; 36: 36S-42S