Latiglutenase Not Effective for Celiac Disease, Plus One

A recent study (JA Murray et al. Gastroenterol 2017; 152: 787-98) examined the effectiveness of  latiglutenase for celiac disease.  Latiglutenase (aka ALV003) is an oral medicine which is a mixture of two recombinant gluten-targeting proteases.

The concept of latigluenase is that a medicine that degrades the gluten protein could obviate the need for a gluten free diet.  Unfortunately, in this study with 494 patients with celiac disease for at least 1 year, the medicine at various doses for 12 to 24 weeks was ineffective. There was no difference between the medicine and placebo with regard to villous height:crypt depth ratio, number of intraepithelial lymphocytes or serologic markers of celiac disease.  Symptom scores increased in both the active treatment group and the placebo group.  While this was a negative study, the authors did note some effect on symptom domains on higher dosing regimens. “This observation suggests that treatment with latiglutenase may affect symptoms before showing clinically meaningful effects on serologic and histologic end points.

A second study (RS Choung et al. Gastroenterol 2017; 152: 830-9) examined prevalence and morbidity of undiagnosed celiac disease in Olmstead County. After excluding patients with celiac disease, sera from 30,425 adults and 830 children were tested for tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody (tTG)  and endomysial antibody (EMA).  Case definition: patients were considered to have celiac serologically if tTG titer was 2.0 U/mL or greater with a positive EMA. The prevalence of celiac disease was 1.1% in adults and 1.0% in children. The majority of patients with celiac disease (>80%) have not received the diagnosis.  By comparing those with positive celiac serology to matched controls (2 controls for each positive), the authors determined that undiagnosed celiac disease was associated with increased rates of hypothyroidism (OR 2.2) but no other significant morbidities.  Median followup period was 6.3 years.

My take: A promising new therapy for celiac disease, latiglutenase, looks like it will not be effective and there are a lot of individuals with celiac disease who are unaware of their diagnosis.

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Disclaimer: These blog posts are for educational purposes only. Specific dosing of medications (along with potential adverse effects) should be confirmed by prescribing physician.  This content is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a condition.

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Severe Hypothyroidism due to Iodine Deficiency Associated with Parenteral Nutrition

From Kipp Ellsworth Twitter Feed:

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J Parenter Enteral Nutr November 2016 vol. 40 no. 8 1191-1193

Abstract:

Parenteral nutrition is crucial for supply of nutrients in children who cannot tolerate a full enteral diet. In the United States, it is not standard of care to give iodine to children dependent on parenteral nutrition, hence iodine is not routinely included in the micronutrient package. Herein, we present a case of a boy with hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency after prolonged exclusive use of parenteral nutrition. Our case highlights the importance of screening for iodine deficiency and administering timely iodine supplementation in these at-risk children to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism.

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Hypothyroidism with ATP8B1 Deficiency

A recent study (L Li et al. J Pediatr 2015; 157: 1334-9) indicated that hypothyroidism may be another extrahepatic feature of patients with ATP8B1 deficiency; this mutation’s main manifestation has been intrahepatic cholestasis in either progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC type 1) or benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC type 1).

In this study, 3/13 were hypothyroid and an additional 2/13 had subclinical hypothyroidism.  These patients were compared with a cohort of children with ABCB11 deficiency (PFIC type 2 or BRIC type 2) in which 0/19 had hypothyroidism.

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